+- +-

+-User

Welcome, Guest.
Please login or register.
 
 
 
Forgot your password?

+-Stats ezBlock

Members
Total Members: 46
Latest: Tony Ryan
New This Month: 0
New This Week: 0
New Today: 0
Stats
Total Posts: 12337
Total Topics: 257
Most Online Today: 5
Most Online Ever: 137
(April 21, 2019, 04:54:01 am)
Users Online
Members: 0
Guests: 1
Total: 1

Author Topic: Sustainable Farming  (Read 3425 times)

0 Members and 0 Guests are viewing this topic.

AGelbert

  • Administrator
  • Hero Member
  • *****
  • Posts: 24052
  • Location: Colchester, Vermont
    • Renwable Revolution
Re: Sustainable Farming
« Reply #30 on: May 29, 2016, 08:36:24 pm »
Methane Capture and Use

Because methane can be captured from landfills, it can be burned to produce electricity, heat buildings, or power garbage trucks. Capturing methane before it gets into the atmosphere also helps reduce the effects of climate change.

Methane can also be captured from farm digesters, which are big tanks that contain manure and other waste from barns that house livestock such as cows and pigs.


Putting waste to good use.
More than 500 landfill–to–energy projects are currently operating in the United States, and another 500 landfills are good candidates for turning their methane into an energy resource, which would produce enough electricity to power nearly 688,000 homes across the nation.

Top producer. In 2009, Germany produced enough electricity from biogas to power 3.5 million homes.

A world first! Sweden has been operating a biogas-powered train since 2005. It shuttles passengers between two cities that are 75 miles apart.

https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/solutions/technologies/methane.html


There is a HUGE difference between Renewable Energy based methane and the highly polluting fossil fuel industry produced methane. Renewable Energy BIOGAS based methane IS, when all the carbon cycle math is done, Carbon Neutral.


Methanogenesis: The Biological Production of Methane Gas

Half of all species on Earth are microbial, and many of these organisms inhabit anaerobic environments such as in soil, freshwater and ocean sediment, and the digestive tracts of eukaryotes. Studying anaerobic prokaryotes represents a technical challenge. However, the payoff is great: their genomes contain a high proportion of unknown genes that belie exotic biochemistry, and they produce unusual secondary metabolites that could be used for human benefit.

Currently, European countries (Switzerland, Germany) use renewable methane extensively, and are projected to steadily increase their use of biologically-produced methane in order to phase out consumption of fossil methane derived from geological sources.

The Buan Lab is interested in the physiology of strict anaerobes in order to understand how these organisms grow, what role they play in the environment and in the human microbiome, and in the unique or unusual metabolites and enzymes they produce.

We use methane-producing archaea (methanogens) as a model system to understand biological methane production. methanogens are strict anaerobic archaea that obtain all their energy for growth and reproduction by reducing fermentation endproducts like acetate, H2 CO2, formate, methanol, methylamines, and methylsulfides to methane gas.

Methanogens are the dominant archaea in anaerobic sediment where sulfide concentrations are low, and are also dominant archaea in the rumen of cattle, in the termite hidgut, and in the human digestive tract.

Methanogens produce 2 gigatons of methane gas annually, representing 4% of the global carbon cycle. Methane produced by methanogens can be harvested and used as a heat and energy source.

Large dairy farms and wastewater treatment plants commonly harvest methane produced in anaerobic digesters and offset nearly all of their heat and energy needs using renewable methane.

http://unlcms.unl.edu/biochemistry/buanlab/research-overview


Yes, we know there are a lot of termites doing their thing out there and capturing their methane is not very cost effective.

HOWEVER, city dumps and animal feces based methane harvesters ARE COST COMPETITIVE with fossil methane.

One gigaton equals one billion tons.

The conversion calculator below gives you a figure in hundreds of cubic feet. You must multiply that by 100 to get cubic feet, then divide the product by one million.

http://www.convertunits.com/from/tons/to/hundred+cubic+foot+of+natural+gas

One gigaton of methane equals 3,848,417,954 million cubic feet. That's HALF of what those microbes produce worldwide each year. We CAN harvest that efficiently.

In 2015, approximately 29,000,000 million cubic feet of fossil fuel methane was produced in the USA.
https://www.eia.gov/dnav/ng/hist/n9050us2a.htm

As those who can add and subtract can plainly see ;D, Natural Processes are quite capable of supplying Renewable Energy NATURAL methane without the "help" of our "dear loyal servants" in the fossil fuel Industry.

You can see why the fossil fuel industry is not in any hurry to have methane digesters adopted on a worldwide scale in every city dump and farm animal location.

 

Below is an example of fossil methane that CAN be captured WITHOUT flaring and other assorted pollution piggery the oil and gas corporations love to engage in.

The Germans are capturing methane from abandoned coal mines.

Production of Coal Bed Methane in Germany - Springer 
by O Langefeld - ‎2013 - ‎Related articlesProduction of Coal Bed Methane in Germany ... Abandoned Mine Methane (AMM) and Coal Mine Methane (CMM) projects are now prevalent in several sites in ... Energy Harvesting · Geoengineering, Foundations, Hydraulics · Hydrogeology ...

http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-37849-2_15#page-1

Finally, as you can read about below,
the Germans have figured out a way to strip methane collected from digesters from producing ANY CO2 whatsoever.

The fossil fuel industry is probably trying to jump on this with both claws, of course   . The problem for them is that Fracked gas wells LEAK methane into the atmosphere, along with FLARING about one third by volume of toxic and carcinogenic poisonous gases just to get their methane.

Also, every single hole drilled into the ocean bottom that has produced oil and gas LEAKS methane.     

Truly NATURAL gas from methane harvesting is the only practical use of this new German technology.

German researchers crack the code for carbon-free methane to hydrogen conversion

12/07/2015 under News, Renewable Energy

German researchers have “****” the code for breaking down methane from natural gas without creating carbon dioxide, and in the process dealt a blow to climate change. Gizmag reports scientists at the Institute of Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS) and the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have created a process that lets them extract the energy content from methane, in the form of hydrogen, without emitting any CO2.

The process, known as “methane cracking,” separates the hydrogen and carbon elements found in methane by subjecting them to temperatures of more than 1,382 degrees Fahrenheit and avoids previously problematic carbon emissions via a unique design.

http://inhabitat.com/german-researchers-crack-the-code-for-carbon-free-methane-to-hydrogen-conversion/

Apart from capturing the methane at unused fossil fuel drill sites and abandoned coal beds to capture it before it leaks into the atmosphere,  we need fossil methane like a hole in the head.






Eddie, this is relevant to the methane harvesting operation. STEP ONE in all farming operations, even those that are more about animal husbandry, is environmentally friendly soil microbes. We HAVE TO HAVE THEM if we are to have a carbon neutral or carbon negative civilization. The fossil fuel and chemical industries have been busy killing soil microbes sine qua non for sustainable soil for over a century. This is stupid.



Soil testing, for over a century, has WRONGLY used a chemical analysis approach instead of a biological health approach. :o The reason they went that way is because chemical analysis is SIMPLER and favors MONOCULTURE and INDUSTRIAL FARMING destructive soil management. IOW, PROFIT OVER PLANET agricultural practices ARE RUINING THE SOIL. AND THE SCIENCE HAS BEEN TAILORED TO FAVOR THAT DESTRUCTIVE MODUS OPERANDI.   

Instead of using a host of acids the soil NEVER ACTUALLY SEES to test soil, WATER should be used and ORGANIC ACIDS should be measured. WHY? Because THAT is what the soil microbes ACTUALLY interact with to aid plants in growing.

IOW, the LIFE of the microbes is the LIFE of the soil and the KEY to soil productivity, sustainability AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, the sine qua non for restoring degraded soil. USABLE carbon, phosphates and potassium (K) have also been measured incorrectly.

In 1935 they were on the right track. But the industrialized monoculture agriculture of profit over planet twisted soil testing methods which overruled the soil LIFE approach.  >:( As an example of how faulty the tests are, since 1965 HALF the biologically available nitrogen has been ABSENT from the soil tests.

They had to try to mimic natural systems in the lab. They didn't.  The abysmal stupidity of that approach is that INORGANIC minerals were being measured as "assets"  for the soil  when plants cannot do SQUAT with inorganic minerals when a depleted soil microbe population cannot turn them into ORGANIC minerals.    

Cover crops (land without a crop for sale but grown with some type of plant - not bare soil - in order to enhance microbial life proven to restore the soil) are a BIG DEAL in soil restoration. This has been proven by the proper soil testing science as detailed in the video.


Here is the PROPER way to measure soil health:


[embed=640,380]<iframe width="640" height="390" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/behAQzwdnzs" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>[/embed]
This poor man cried, and the Lord heard him, and saved him out of all his troubles.. -- Psalm 34:6

 

+-Recent Topics

Batteries by AGelbert
June 20, 2019, 03:36:23 pm

Doomstead Diner Daily by AGelbert
June 20, 2019, 01:47:18 pm

Comic Relief by AGelbert
June 20, 2019, 01:31:46 pm

WTF? by AGelbert
June 20, 2019, 12:39:15 pm

Electric Vehicles by AGelbert
June 20, 2019, 12:11:49 pm

Global Warming is WITH US by AGelbert
June 19, 2019, 09:34:29 pm

War Provocations and Peace Actions by AGelbert
June 19, 2019, 06:48:41 pm

U.S. History & Politics, Climate Change, Trump Impeachment & Standing Rock: CONTEXT by AGelbert
June 19, 2019, 04:37:57 pm

The Big Picture of Renewable Energy Growth by AGelbert
June 19, 2019, 03:52:03 pm

Large Sea Creatures by AGelbert
June 19, 2019, 03:12:12 pm