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Author Topic: Photvoltaics (PV)  (Read 8969 times)

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AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #330 on: May 18, 2019, 05:38:41 pm »
May 18th, 2019 by Tina Casey

Perovskite Solar Cells

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #331 on: May 25, 2019, 06:23:29 pm »
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #332 on: June 09, 2019, 09:16:48 pm »
CleanTechnica
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June 9th, 2019 by Cynthia Shahan

Walt Disney World Solar Panels Now Span 270 Acres — 50-Megawatt Solar Park Powers ~2 Theme Parks


Associated article with pictures and more video:

https://cleantechnica.com/2019/06/09/walt-disney-world-solar-panels-now-span-270-acres-the-50-megawatt-solar-park-powers-2-theme-parks/
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #333 on: June 15, 2019, 05:21:44 pm »
Mining Methane In Lake Kivu, Rwanda: An Unusual Source Of Renewable
 Energy

June 15th, 2019 by David Zarembka

SNIPPET:

Lake Kivu, between Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (called “DRC” by Africanists), is many times larger than the two Camerooning lakes. It is the eighth largest lake in Africa, with a surface area of about 1040 square miles. Two million people live on its shores.

Mount Nyiragongo it 20 miles north of Lake Kivu in the DRC. It has erupted 34 times since 1882. There was a massive eruption of Nyiragongo in January 2002 and its lava flowed all the way into Lake Kivu. There were fears that the lava might set off a limnic explosion. Luckily, it didn’t.

This danger led the Rwanda government to explore the idea of mining the methane in the lake to reduce the possibility of a limnic event. In 2010, KivuWatt, the first methane-extraction platform, was proposed and it went online in 2015 at 26.2 MW of output, which was later increased to 34 MW. Recently, two more platforms have been approved for development, one at 56 MW and the second at 25 MW. When these are in service, this will total 125 MW of power. While this might seem extremely small, Rwanda’s total electricity capacity in 2018 was only 218 MW. The two additional plants will therefore add a significant amount of additional capacity to the country. The estimated 65 cubic kilometers of methane in the lake would last for more than 50 years.

Then in February of this year Rwanda signed a $400 million agreement with a company called Gasmeth Energy to extract methane from the lake and directly bottle the methane gas for direct use by consumers.


This methane gas mining from the bottom of Lake Kivu is an interesting, unusual source of renewable electricity. It is “renewable” because it is already existing, produced by a natural process. The CO2 in the lake is still of great concern, but since Lake Kivu is 200 times the size of Lake Nyos, withdrawing the CO2 from the lake would be a major engineering problem.

full article:
https://cleantechnica.com/2019/06/15/mining-methane-in-lake-kivu-rwanda-an-unusual-source-of-renewable-energy/

Agelbert COMMENT: To David Zarembka:
 I understand and support the human dire need for energy, but this technology unfortunately causes more Greenhouse Gases to be released into the already over burdened heat trapping atmosphere. I have an alternate proposal that you may wish to consider.

Fishing boats on Lake Kivu, 2009


The fish fauna in Lake Kivu is relatively poor with 28 described species, including four introduced species. Lake Kivu fish stock viability is important to the local economy surrounding the lake. Fish stocks are negatively impacted by the estimated 65 cubic kilometres of CH4 (that If burnt over one year, would give an average power of about 100 gigawatts for the whole period).

Fish require a certain amount of dissolved oxygen in the water in order to survive and thrive. The estimated 256 cubic kilometers of carbon dioxide, which no doubt contributes to to the pH level of about 8.6, also limits the fish biome within the lake. 

Since the lake surface area, estimated at some 2,700 km2 (1,040 sq mi), is quite extensive, if they could get a loan from China to put floating solar panels (China makes the most inexpensive solar panels), they would have much more energy produced than the methane harvesting technology provides AND could use some of the Renewable Solar Panel harvested Electricity produced to pump air down into the lake depths (through the same pipes they are now using to pump methane up) to prevent bacteria from anaerobically (i.e "living, active, occurring, or existing in the absence of free oxygen") metabolizing CO2 to produce methane (CH4).

It being that CH4 is from 25 to 70 times more potent a GHG than CO2, preventing this methane from forming in the first place would make the floating massive solar panel project even more justified.

In addition to a Renewable Energy bonanza, pumping air (which holds about 20.9% oxygen) down 300 metres (1,000 ft) would dissipate anoxic conditions, thereby enabling lake fish habitats to expand. If the air pumping is vigorous enough, the CO2 mixed with pressurized ambient air would cause the pH to go down towards neutral pH, another plus for fish viability.

Over the long term, while providing plenty of energy for all the surrounding population, a massive floating solar panel system, covering 40% or so of the surface of Lake Kivu, would prevent a future limnic event, improve the fishing economy, reduce surface evaporation, thereby providing more fresh water for agriculture and human consumption, and improve the surrounding environment in many other life promoting ways. 

I mention surface evaporation because Lake Kivu, at 1,460 m (4,790 ft) above sea level, is a high elevation lake. All lakes at high elevations have high evaporation rates. Reducing the evaporation rate has many environmental benefits, though the lake temperature would have to be kept from rising too much as a result. According to Wikipedia, the water temperature is 24 °C. For the sake of the lake fauna, you certainly do not want that, already rather high lake temperature, to go up.

Lake Kivu Methane extraction platform:

The methane harvesting plants can pe repurposed as oxygen and nitrogen pumping fish habitat enhancing plants. They could monitor lake evaporation rate, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, etc., and take appropriate action to prevent problems in any of those areas.

We have a GHG problem. We have a reduced fish stocks problem, not just in Lake Kivu, but in all the oceans and lakes of the world. Ironically (in addition to overfishing, of course), it's the low (acidic) pH in the oceans that threatens them, not the high (basic) pH as in Lake Kivo.

Lack of energy, clean water, adequate food and healthy cropland are human problems that must be addressed holistically. The methane harvesters only address the energy issue, while actually contributing to the other problems that guarantee Catastrophic Climate Change.
 
Quote
As the bird by wandering, as the swallow by flying, so the curse causeless shall not come. -- Proverbs 26:2
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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Los Angeles & 8minute Solar Announce 25-Year PPA At Under 2 Cents Per kWh!

June 30th, 2019 by Steve Hanley

When Los Angeles mayor Eric Garcetti announced his city’s Green New Deal in April — a plan that will accelerate its zero emissions and renewable energy goals — his words were welcomed by the Sierra Club and other climate activists. Now the city’s Department of Water and Power has presented a proposal that will help turn those words into reality.

Credit: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power

If approved, the city will enter into a 25-year power purchase agreement for 400 MW AC/530 MW DC of solar electricity at a price of 1.997 cents per kWh — the lowest price yet for solar power in the US. Adding a 100 MW/200 MWh battery will cost an additional 1.3 cents per kWh. The project includes the option to add 50 MW/200 MWh of energy storage for 0.665 cents per kWh more.

The project, known as the Eland Solar & Storage Center, will be built in two 200 MW AC phases in Kern County north of the city and proud home of beautiful downtown Bakersfield. In the second phase, the size of the battery storage component may double. In an e-mail to PV Magazine, 8minute Solar says there is no price escalator clause that applies to the second phase of the project.

The battery storage can be used to meet the late afternoon, early evening surge in energy demand that occurs on a daily basis. There is a possibility it may also be used to meet some of the early morning increase in demand. Using stored electricity means there is no need to ramp up gas fired peaker plants, which is good news for the environment.

Representatives of LA Water and Power say they are drawing up plans for 7 other solar power plants to help meed the city’s needs for electricity in coming years. Construction of the first phase of the project is expected to begin in 2022 with a completion date set for the last day of 2023. When it is brought online, it is expect to supply 5% of the city’s renewable energy needs.

https://cleantechnica.com/2019/06/30/los-angeles-8minute-solar-announce-25-year-ppa-at-under-2-cents-per-kwh/

I really enjoyed this comment!

Quote
Electric Vehicle Network, Inc • 12 hours ago
Dear Mr. Koch, please accept our deepest condolences. We understand the news of $2 cents per kW solar power must come as a shock. How is it possible? The more dark money bribes you pay the faster renewable energy progresses!? Sir, may I offer a consolation stock tip? There is this company you may have heard of. They are called TESLA.TESLA are headed by a indomitable young fellow named Elon Musk. You may want to consider liquidating your Koch stock while you still can. And purchase every share of Tesla you can at this time. To ensure your grandfather does not do a complete 360 in his fossil fuel soaked grave.

Yours in renewable energy, Don Macallister, Ceo, Electric Vehicle Network, Inc.

         
 
 



Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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AXITEC Increases Warranty to 15 Years 👍

The well-known solar module brand AXITEC extends its manufacturer’s warranty to 15 years. An experienced team has been providing high quality consistently for over 18 years. The long-standing confidence of the customers in AXITEC’s solar modules is to be given back by the extended warranty.
 
Leading warranties

• Industry leading 15 years’ manufacturer’s warranty

• Exclusive performance warranty of 85 % after 25 years



Available modules

• AXIpremium Mono 370 Watts - 72 cells

• AXIpremium HC Mono 380/385 Watts - 144 cells

• AXIpremium BLK HC 320 Watts – 120 cells

• AXIblackpremium HC 310 Watts – 120 cells


In stock now!!!

READ MORE:
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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2019 Top Residential 🌞 Solar Contractors
« Reply #336 on: July 29, 2019, 08:43:54 pm »

2019 Top Residential 🌞 Solar Contractors

This is the list of 2019 Top Solar Contractors that primarily work in the residential market. These companies chose their primary market as “residential” when applying to the list, and they may also work in the commercial and utility markets. The listed kilowatts installed by each company could come from multiple markets and not just residential projects.

The companies below are a segmented portion of the overall 2019 Top Solar Contractors list, organized by kilowatts (DC) installed in 2018.

For more information on Solar Power World‘s annual Top Solar Contractors list, visit our Top Solar Contractors landing page.


https://www.solarpowerworldonline.com/2019-top-residential-solar-contractors/

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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September 29th, 2019 by Steve Hanley

Hanwha Q Cells Dedicates Largest Solar Panel Factory In Western Hemisphere  

Hanwha Q Cells officially opened its 300,000 square foot solar panel factory in Dalton, Georgia last week, claiming it is the largest such manufacturing facility in the western hemisphere. The $200 million factory employs more than 650 workers and is capable of producing 12,000 solar panels a year — enough to generate 1.7 GW of electricity. Its standard production panel features six bus bars, has an efficiency of about 19%, and an output of up to 345 watts.

Credit: Hanwha

The Georgia factory began producing panels in January and and started shipping them to customers in February. At full capacity, it will have three production lines operating simultaneously. “The factory is currently producing over 10,000 modules per day and very close to the full 12,000-module-per-day capacity,” Scott Moskowitz,director of strategy and market intelligence for Hanwha, tells PV Magazine. “We expect to be running at full capacity by the end of the year.”

Politics & Power

Georgia Governor 👹 Brian Kemp, who stole the election last year by systematically denying access to the polls to African American voters while he was running for governor and serving as Georgia’s secretary of state, trotted up to Dalton to say a few words about the new plant, claiming it makes northwest Georgia “a hub for the manufacturing of clean, renewable energy sources.”

There are currently three other solar panel factories in operation or under construction in the US — LG’s 500 MW factory in Alabama, Jinko Solar’s 400 MW fab in Florida, and First Solar’s 1.2 GW production line in Lake Township, Ohio. PV Magazine points out that the decision to move forward on all four came after the Republican-controlled Congress rammed through a massive tax cut for corporations in 2017.

Since then, Trump’s tariffs imposed as part of his trade war with China have added an extra economic incentive to manufacture solar panels in America. But as PV Magazine points out, the total output of all four factories will be about 5 GW while the US as a whole is on pace to install 12 GW of solar power next year. Clearly lots of panels are still coming into the US from foreign countries.

We haven’t forgotten about the Tesla/Panasonic factory in Buffalo, New York, but its production is negligible at present and there are concerns it may never begin producing more than a trickle of panels, so it is largely irrelevant to the conversation.

PV Magazine also points out that all the solar cells used in the Hanwha, LG, Jinko Solar, and First Solar are manufactured outside the US. Trump’s tariffs on those cells are hurting America’s quest to make its utility sector carbon neutral by driving up the cost of domestically manufactured solar panels no matter how you look at it.

Bear in mind that tax policies and tariffs can change quickly. If a future administration alters either or both, the long term prospects of these four factories could be in doubt as corporations continue to seek the lowest possible cost of manufacturing.

https://cleantechnica.com/2019/09/29/hanwha-q-cells-dedicates-largest-solar-panel-factory-in-western-hemisphere/
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

AGelbert

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How Do I Choose the Solar Mounting System for My Project?


Show Me the Money

Itching for some REAL costs now? Jump to the end of the article to get the actual cost breakdown of a real solar project. We’ll show you a bill of materials for a project using rails and the same layout using direct-attach.





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AGelbert

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How Effective Is California at Generating Solar Power?
« Reply #339 on: October 30, 2019, 07:14:14 pm »
Flag of California

How Effective Is California at Generating Solar Power?

California's state motto is "Eureka," which means "I found it," but in the wake of some recent generosity, it might want to add on the words, "and I gave some of it away." Known for its sunny climate, California is also smart and innovative, so incorporating solar power into its energy grid was a no-brainer. However, with fossil fuels continuing to reign supreme, it has been nearly impossible to actually use all of the solar power that the Golden State produces. Under these circumstances, California has had little choice but to give energy away to neighboring states, like Arizona. In fact, the sudden glut of additional energy has sometimes put California's power lines in danger of overloading, so the state has even paid its neighbors to take some of the extra energy off its hands. Residents of those other states reap the benefits of the free energy in the form of lower utility bills.

Soaking up the sunshine: 

֍ The price of solar panels has dropped by approximately 99 percent since 1977, and they now last up to 40 years, with almost no maintenance.

֍ As of 2019, the United States boasts more than 2 million solar power installations; it is expected to reach 4 million in the next four years.

֍ In 2016, a Swiss pilot flew the first totally solar-powered plane around the world.

https://www.wisegeek.com/how-effective-is-california-at-generating-solar-power.htm
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12

 

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