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Author Topic: Photvoltaics (PV)  (Read 8060 times)

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AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #60 on: August 08, 2014, 06:09:16 pm »
A First: Net-Zero Manufacturing  ;D

SustainableBusiness.com News

This is the first time we've heard of a manufacturer running completely on solar - 2.77 megawatts provides more than they need.


OPEX Corp., which makes automated mail handling and package-picking equipment, occupies a 30-acre campus five miles east of Philadelphia, in New Jersey. Their PV system is the largest for a privately held company in the state.

---

by Jim McMahon

 In New Jersey, a leading manufacturer of automated material-handling equipment recently slashed its utility bills 84% thanks to a huge solar PV array - 2.77 megawatts (MW).

 OPEX Corp. now produces more than 100% of the electricity needed to operate its 250,000-square-foot manufacturing, distribution and administrative complex in Moorestown, NJ. That makes the facility net-zero for electricity.

It's the largest solar installation in New Jersey by a privately held company.

Efficiency Measures

Before going solar, OPEX reduced internal loads. "We were spending a lot of money on electricity, and were constantly battling to reduce those costs," says Dave Andrews, OPEX Facilities Manager.

 "We had installed efficiency fluorescent lighting throughout the manufacturing/ distribution areas and in our administrative offices, and added motion-sensitive lighting in other areas. We also installed a computer-based programmable system for our rooftop HVAC units to run on a more efficient user-occupied basis. These changes produced significant savings."

Late in 2009, CEO Dave Stevens began exploring solar as a next cost-saving step. OPEX conducted a systematic cost-benefit analysis, taking into account the company's long-term business and sustainability goals.

 "This was a logical next step for us," says Andrews. "As we started learning about it, the potential began making good financial sense. The incentives looked really attractive, including a 30% rebate from the federal government." OPEX also expected to benefit from solar renewable energy credits, then worth $660 per megawatt-hour.

Optimizing Solar Energy Use

OPEX selected H2 Contracting of Marlton, NJ as a general contractor. The traditional grid energy consumption for the Moorestown complex was 2.6 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year.

 To cover all that, H2 designed a 2.77 MW solar installation consisting of 8372, 250-watt Canadian Solar modules covering the roofs of two buildings and two parking pavilions, along with a three-acre solar field array, for a total projected annual output of 2.77 kWh.

This was previously a softball field:
(solar panel farm picture at link)


Solar OPEX manufacturing

"The solar system installed at OPEX is not a typical design," says Mark Heenan, president and LEED-Accredited Professional with H2. "Because we mounted the panels on multiple rooftops, canopies and a field array, the 82,000 square feet of PV panels are oriented in six different directions, and with various tilts to better capitalize on available sunlight and space. We used Satcon's Smart Combiner to optimize production." The array, on RBI racking, sends power at 590 volts to four Satcon Solstice 500 inverters.

The grid-tied system, completed in April 2012, directly supports the company's manufacturing and distribution operations and administrative offices.

Embracing Sustainability

The company's parking pavilions now provide two EV charging stations for employee use. All scrap materials and oils used in manufacturing, and paper products from administrative offices, are recycled. OPEX sank its own 175-foot well to irrigate eight acres of open land on campus, replanted with native fescue grass that requires little water. Rainwater runoff from the 22 acres of roofing and parking areas is funneled to open ground to percolate into the aquifer.

OPEX products - automated mail sorting and material-handling products - are designed to be energy efficient and sustainable. Its Mail Matrix sorter and perfect Pick warehouse picking system rely on robot delivery vehicles, equipped with ultra-capacitors to recapture energy during operation.
                 
                                   

++++

Jim McMahon writes on renewable energy and sustainability, with feature stories appearing in hundreds of industrial and technology publications throughout the world.

This article first appeared in Solar Today (March/April 2014), the magazine of the American Solar Energy Society. 

http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/25852
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #62 on: September 02, 2014, 08:59:53 pm »
Nepalese Teen Invents Cheap Solar Panel Using Human Hair

                                                     
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #63 on: September 08, 2014, 01:07:16 am »
Quote


John Birk   
September 7, 2014 


Regarding the energy of sunshine there are some irrefutable facts.


Namely that all of the coal, oil and gas known to humans, has the same energy that the sun shines on us in 20 days!

Furthermore scientist at RMI calculated that if all the roof of building in cities worldwide were covered with solar cell, it would meet our energy ten times over!

Remember the above are facts ........ unlike what the energy business spreads;-)

Soon low cost energy storage will come to market and if you are still in the fossil fuel business be afraid ......... be very afraid!   ;D
Scientia Non Domus,
(Knowledge has No Home)

antiguajohn

The Inevitability of Solar    ;D

 Paula Mints, SPV Market Research 

http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/09/the-inevitability-of-solar
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #64 on: September 08, 2014, 11:55:37 pm »

Solar for All: Making Solar PV Accessible to Low-Income Families in the U.S.


Aug  27, 2014

Authors
Laurie Guevara-Stone
Writer / Editor

Here at RMI we love seeing electricity generated by the sun. And while it’s great to see large homes owned by the likes of Woody Harrelson and Will Ferrell being solar-powered, rooftop solar should be accessible to people across the socio-economic spectrum of the U.S., not just the one percent. But putting solar on all of these different roofs is currently a serious challenge.

Even with lowered PV costs and the prevalence of third-party financing programs, solar is largely out of reach for many low-income families. Many are renters who do not own their homes, putting them at the mercy of their landlord. For those that do own their homes, few have enough tax liability to take full advantage of federal and state tax incentives for rooftop solar. That’s largely a moot point anyway, since even with incentives the steep upfront cost of rooftop solar in the U.S. still puts a PV system financially out of reach for low-income families. That’s where third-party leasing can come in, but many low-income families have low credit scores and most solar leasing companies require a credit score of at least 700. It’s one potential financial barrier after another.

Fortunately, there are groups around the country working to overcome these barriers to market participation and ultimately bring solar to low-income households. Giving low-income families access to solar PV systems can help lower their utility bills, provide employment opportunities, and bring about an element of environmental justice.

Saving Money

Low-income families spend over twice the proportion of their total income on energy bills than the average person in the United States. When low-income families have high energy bills one of the first thing they often skimp on is food. Researchers from the Boston Medical Center have found that children in energy-insecure households don’t get enough food, have poorer health, and are more prone to developmental problems. One way to lower energy bills and keep food on the table is to power homes with solar photovoltaics.

“Low-income families pay into the rebate pool like everyone else. Yet often, even with rebates, they can’t afford a solar home system,” Shirley Moore, program manager at Grid Alternatives, told RMI. Grid Alternatives, or simply Grid, as it is fondly called, is a nonprofit organization providing low- to no-cost PV systems to low-income families throughout California, Colorado, New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut. Homeowners who earn 80 percent or less of the median income and have a solar-appropriate roof qualify for a Grid Alternatives PV system. “We see people save an average of 50 to 75 percent off their electric bill. Money that can go towards paying their mortgage, putting food on the table, or saving for college,” said Moore.

Grid works with local partners to find qualifying families. The families do not have to put any money down, but do have to contribute 16 hours of sweat equity. They can work in the Grid office, help on the installation, or even cook lunch for the installation volunteers. They then pay $0.02 per kilowatt-hour for what their system produces. It’s a small price to pay for leasing the system, often adding up to only about $100 per year, but according to Chuck Watkins, executive director of Grid Alternatives–Colorado, “we want the homeowners highly engaged with their system and aware of their energy usage.”

A similar organization, Citizens Energy, provides free solar PV systems that reduce homeowners’ electricity costs by 40 to 50 percent in the Imperial Valley of California, an area with the highest unemployment rate in the country. With temperatures in the area climbing to 120 degrees Fahrenheit, homeowners can have a difficult time paying for the electricity to run their air conditioners. Citizens Energy uses 50 percent of its profits from its share of the Sunrise Powerlink high-voltage transmission line that brings renewable energy to the San Diego region to purchase, install, and maintain the systems. The homeowner signs a 20-year lease only after they receive a free energy audit and weatherization services. One of the 200 homeowners to receive the free PV system saw her monthly summer electricity bill go from $350 to $85.

A statewide program in California is also helping low-income families. SASH (Single-family Affordable Solar Homes) provides fully subsidized 1 kW systems to very-low-income households (50 percent or below the area median income), and highly subsidized systems to other low-income households. The incentives for the subsidized systems range from $4.75 to $7.00 per watt, depending on the customer’s utility rate schedule and tax liability. Incentives are higher for customers who cannot take advantage of the ITC. Over 3,600 systems have been installed, and participating families’ electricity bills have been reduced by approximately 80 percent.

Green Jobs

Another benefit to bringing solar access to low-income families is increasing employment opportunities. Low-income communities often have high rates of unemployment. Yet more than 140,000 people are employed in the solar industry, more than half of them in installation jobs that can’t ever be outsourced. That’s a drop in the bucket of the 46.5 million Americans currently living in poverty, but with solar installations growing at a rate of 40 percent, those jobs are going to keep growing as well. Grid Alternatives, for its part, installs its systems with local volunteers and partners with job training organizations to provide hands-on field experience students need to get certified as solar installers and to get jobs. Partners include community colleges and vocational schools, the Center for Employment Training, YouthBuild, Veterans Green Jobs, and Green City Force.

At a recent installation in Carbondale, Colorado, twelve local volunteers along with the homeowner helped install a 3.6 kW system for Dan and Pam Rosenthal. “Once a volunteer comes out to at least four to six of our installs, they can become a team leader,” Moore told RMI. “They then get valuable hands-on experience as well as experience in leading crews, and a lot of our team leaders end up getting employed in the industry.”

Environmental Justice

“Clean energy access for low-income Americans,” writes clean energy development and policy professional Bryan Lewis for ThinkProgress, “is not just an issue of economics, but an issue of justice, as well.” Lower-income people in the United States are more susceptible to the negative impacts of climate change, may be more affected by urban pollution, and face health issues from living closer to coal plants. “Often times low-income families are the ones most affected by pollution,” Chuck Watkins told RMI. “So it’s nice for them to be able to be part of the climate change solution.”

The Rosenthals had been trying to figure out a way to get a solar PV system for years. Even with the rebates it was still out of reach. So they were ecstatic when they learned about Grid Alternatives. “It’s great that we will be saving money,” said Pam Rosenthal, “but even more important to us than that is we want to reduce our ecological footprint and do our part for the environment.” The Rosenthal’s system is estimated to save them 75 percent off their $90 electric bill each month. But more exciting for Pam is the amount of CO2 that they will be offsetting in the lifetime of their system, helping Carbondale reach its carbon goals.

The town of Carbondale has a goal of generating 35 percent of its electricity by renewable energy by 2020. “It’s a big goal,” said Carbondale Town Trustee Pam Zentmeyer, “and we need participation from everyone if we’re going to do it. It’s great these organizations have erased the financial barriers.”


http://blog.rmi.org/blog_2014_08_27_solar_for_all_solar_pv_for_low_income_families
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #65 on: October 25, 2014, 03:50:22 pm »
Energy Department Announces $53 Million to Drive Innovation, Cut Cost of Solar Power  ;D

October 22, 2014           

WASHINGTON – Building on President Obama’s Climate Action Plan to cut carbon pollution and continue U.S. leadership in clean energy innovation, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz today announced more than $53 million for 40 innovative research and development (R&D) projects that aim to drive down the cost of solar energy, tackling key aspects of technology development in order to bring innovative ideas to the market more quickly. Supporting the development of next generation photovoltaic (PV) solar technologies and advanced manufacturing processes, and addressing both hardware and non-hardware “soft” costs of solar installation, these awards support advancements that will help reduce the cost of solar energy and make solar electricity more affordable and accessible for all Americans.

“As U.S. solar installation increases and the cost of solar electricity continues to decline, solar energy is becoming an increasingly affordable clean energy option for more American families and businesses,” said Secretary Moniz. “Today, the U.S. has 15.9 gigawatts of installed solar power – enough to power more than 3.2 million average American homes. The projects announced today will help the U.S. solar energy industry continue to grow, ensuring America can capitalize on its vast renewable energy sources, cut carbon pollution, and continue to lead in the world in clean energy innovation.”

Driving the Next Generation of Solar Energy Technology


Due in part to the Energy Department’s long-term investments and partnerships with private industry, academia, and DOE National Laboratories, solar PV panels now cost 50 percent of what they did three years ago. To accelerate the development of next generation PV technologies that will further drive down costs, the Energy Department is awarding more than $14 million to 10 research institutions to improve the performance, efficiency, and durability of solar PV devices. The R&D projects will explore a variety of leading-edge solutions, from new high-performance materials to novel techniques for creating more efficient solar cells that cost less to manufacture.                                                                               

Cutting Solar Power Costs with Breakthrough Innovation


By nearly all measures, the solar energy industry has been one of the fastest growing sectors in the United States over the last five years, with cumulative installed solar power increasing more than tenfold since 2008.  :o  ;D Significant decreases in both the hardware costs and non-hardware “soft” costs of a solar energy system, such as permitting, interconnection, and financing, supported this increase in deployment, and further cost reductions will create an environment for even more solar deployment.

Through its SunShot Incubator program, the Energy Department is investing more than $14 million in 20 small businesses that will develop innovative technologies and services to further drive down hardware and non-hardware costs for solar electric systems. The projects take a number of approaches to decreasing costs, creating a software-based solution to quantify risk for solar investors, developing advanced materials and components that maximize efficiency for concentrating solar power (CSP) and identifying ways to eliminate the need for expensive silver in solar cell manufacturing.

Supporting American Solar Manufacturing


As a part of the Administration’s effort to support advanced manufacturing in the U.S., the Energy Department is committed to fostering innovation in solar energy manufacturing in order to further drive down the cost of solar technology and increase domestic manufacturing. In support of the Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative, the Energy Department is awarding more than $24 million to 10 U.S.-based solar manufacturers working to develop and implement innovative technologies that will reduce costs and increase efficiency in manufacturing processes used to make PV and CSP technologies.  These investments focus on tackling key cost-contributors such as raw materials, labor-intensive processes, and capital expenses.

Broadly, these Energy Department investments support state-of-the-art products, solutions, and technology advancements that will increase solar energy system performance and efficiency and drive down costs. The Energy Department’s SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national effort that aggressively drives innovation to make solar energy fully cost-competitive with traditional energy sources by the end of the decade.

http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-announces-53-million-drive-innovation-cut-cost-solar-power
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #66 on: November 05, 2014, 08:37:53 pm »
Solar latecomer France builds Europe's largest plant

Wednesday, November 5, 2014  Michel Rose for Reuters   

PARIS (Reuters) – France has made up some lost ground against its neighbors with the start to construction of what will be Europe’s biggest photovoltaic solar power plant.

Solar power capacity has grown slowly in France compared to Germany, Spain or Italy. It had 5,095 MW of photovoltaic capacity in June, which accounted for only 1 percent of its energy consumption in the first half of the year, and compares with nearly 37,000 MW in Germany.

The new plant at Cestas is a 360 million euro ($450 million) project capable of supplying electricity to a city the size of nearby Bordeaux for a year.    ;D

The project is managed by Neoen, a Paris-based company created by Jacques Veyrat, the former head of commodities trading giant Louis Dreyfus.

The 300-megawatt, ground-mounted installation will be connected to the grid in October 2015 and provide electricity for 105 euros per megawatt-hour over 20 years, a price showing solar is becoming increasingly competitive, its developers say.

Xavier Barbaro, Neoen’s chief executive, compared it to state-owned utility EDF’s Hinkley Point C project in Britain, which will receive a guaranteed power price of 92.5 pounds, or 117 euros per MWh for 35 years.

“We’re below the price of new nuclear electricity in Britain. So the parity between nuclear energy which is costing more and solar which continues to drop is happening now, in 2014   ,” Barbaro told Reuters.

“Four or five years ago, nobody thought that would be possible before 2020,” he said.

CHINESE PANELS

France’s slower start has allowed it to avoid the bursting of the solar bubble in Spain, the Czech Republic and Bulgaria, which have all implemented retroactive taxes on existing operators of renewable energy installations, provoking a backlash with investors.

This helped convince banks such as Societe Generale to fund Neoen’s project and attract investment funds such as KKB, Acofi, and Omnes Capital.

“We had to do a lot of explaining, to investors and the banks to show that these projects were secured,” Barbaro said. “But what’s appreciable in France is that projects already on track are not called into question.”

The solar panels, made by China’s Yingli and Trina Solar and Canadian Solar, will be built and operated by a consortium including French groups Eiffage and Schneider Electric.

“Out of a 360 million euro investment, the share going to French companies will be at least 50 percent,” Barbaro said.

Over the long term, Neoen aims to install 1,000 MW of capacity by 2017, about half in France and the rest in areas where solar is reaching “grid parity”, the price when an energy source does not require subsidies anymore, such as Latin America, Africa and Australia.

Barbaro said an initial public offering (IPO) could be possible around 2018.

“It’s something we can envisage, yes. It’s not an obligation, we already have solid shareholders capable of supporting us over the long term. But we organize ourselves internally as if we were going for an IPO,” he said.

Impala SAS, the holding of former Louis Dreyfus chairman Jacques Veyrat, owns almost 60 percent of Neoen, while French public investment bank Bpifrance owns 15.4 percent and French investment fund Omnes Capital the remaining 25 percent.

(Editing by William Hardy)

http://newsdaily.com/2014/11/solar-latecomer-france-builds-europes-largest-plant/#81FWL2rmBHh2QuKk.99
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #67 on: November 05, 2014, 09:18:33 pm »
The Netherlands becomes first country to install solar-collecting pathway   

 By Shawn Knight on November 5, 2014, 7:30 PM

The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research is putting the finishing touches on a section of bike path connecting two Amsterdam suburbs. Once complete, the 230-foot stretch of path will be the first in the world to double as a solar panel collection grid.

The path, utilized by an average of 2,000 cyclists each day, was built using square concrete blocks with solar cells laid across the top. A 1cm thick piece of tempered glass covers the cells to protect them from pedestrians and the elements. While not very thick, the glass can reportedly withstand the weight of a truck without breaking. 

It’s the first phase in a project that’ll eventually span 328 feet when complete in 2016. All said and done, the project – dubbed SolaRoad – will cost a whopping $3.74 million and produce enough electricity to light three homes. That’s not exactly the best use of funds, but I digress.

The panels aren’t optimized for maximum energy collection due to the fact that they are installed in a fixed position. They are, however, installed at a slight angle in hopes that rain water will help wash away dirt.

Scientists plan to monitor the path over the next three years to see exactly how much energy it can create and observe how it stands up over time. If successful, the potential exists to solarize up to 20 percent of the country’s roadways.

Pictures at link:

http://www.techspot.com/news/58716-netherlands-becomes-first-country-install-solar-collecting-pathway.html
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #68 on: November 17, 2014, 02:58:08 pm »
SunPower Adds AC Inverters To Lineup To Save One-Third Labor Cost

 
The company found significant BOS labor cost savings with the AC inverters compared to microinverters and power optimizers.

 Charles W. Thurston, Contributing Editor 
 November 17, 2014  |  1 Comments 

San Francisco --  The vertical extension of SunPower’s towering corporate structure with the November 10 addition of SolarBridge’s AC inverters signifies one defining feature for the half dozen solar companies that will survive in the future.


SolarBrige AC Inverters fitted on Solar Panels

“For an average 5 kW residential system, TRUEAC module use reduced total labor costs by 33 percent compared to a string inverter, as well as by 35 percent compared to an Enphase detached microinverter, and by 48 percent compared to a SolarEdge power optimizers.” -- Bryan Thomas, SolarBridge

The move has been acclaimed for its expected help in building SunPower’s residential business, since statistics for first quarter 2014 indicate more MWs of PV were installed in residential systems than in commercial systems since 2010. The acquisition was also praised for being an investment aimed at bringing more downstream electronics into the panel, and for being a panel development improvement outside of traditional research directions.

But of perhaps of greater significance to the residential solar industry as a whole is the soft cost savings advantage of the SolarBridge TRUEAC system, which the manufacturer announced in a study, on October 15, with a cost savings of 33 percent over string inverters, according to Bryan Thomas, SolarBridge’s director of product management, and the author of the study.

The SolarBridge study goal was to build on recent balance of system soft cost analysis by Rocky Mountain Institute and Georgia Tech Research Institute, which compared soft costs in the United States to those in Germany. That analysis revealed that German costs are 73 percent lower than those in the United States.

But since the RMI and similar U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focused only on string inverters for the basis of their comparison, SolarBridge did its own survey, also comparing the cost when SolarBridge TRUEAC modules were used, when detached microinverters were used, and when a combination of string inverters and DC optimizers were used.

SolarBridge surveyed “32 installers in 16 key solar states across the country” and found that “for an average 5 kW residential system, TRUEAC module use reduced total labor costs by 33 percent compared to a string inverter, as well as by 35 percent compared to an Enphase detached microinverter, and by 48 percent compared to a SolarEdge power optimizers,” according to Bryan Thomas, SolarBridge’s director of product management.

Employing a team of four — including two non-electricians and two electricians — the average installation time for a string inverter based residential system is 2.4 days, the study indicates. Survey respondents with relevant experience said using SolarBridge TRUEAC modules reduced their installation time by an average of 24 percent compared to using string inverters in the same installation, it concludes.

SunPower had already utilized SolarBridge’s AC inverters for several years prior to the acquisition, and now the AC inverters are expected to be tailored to the former’s top-of-the-line X-Series residential panels.

http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/11/sunpower-addition-of-ac-inverters-to-save-one-third-labor-cost#comment-137205

1 Comments

 A. G. Gelbert   
 November 17, 2014 

This is welcome good news. We all need to be energy independent from centralized power facilities. This gives us the ability to help a neighbor from storm damage and provides redundancy that centralized power will never provide. Stronger community means a stronger middle class and a more humane society.

One of the most important reasons the English Colonies in 18th century America were able to shake off English tyranny is because they could grow and/or manufacture everything they needed, as well as provide their own energy.

We have forgotten that lesson. It's time we relearned it. The more dependent we are, the more price control tyranny will be exerted to fleece us. The more energy independent we are, the more competitive the pricing for our infrastructure will be.
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #69 on: December 05, 2014, 10:44:16 pm »
 


Sat Nov 29, 2014 at 08:28 PM EST.

9 Million Solar Panels Spanning 9.5 Sq Miles: World's Largest Solar Farm Becomes Fully Operational!  ;D

by
jpmassar

The first 500+ megawatt solar plant in the US, and the largest solar plant in the world came online recently.  Called the Topaz Solar Farm, it was built on the Carrizo Plain, located between San Francisco and Los Angeles, due east of San Luis Obispo. The farm is now producing 550 megawatts, enough to keep the lights on in 160,000 homes and displace 370,000 tons of carbon emissions.



http://www.dailykos.com/story/2014/11/29/1348326/-9-Million-Solar-Panels-Spanning-9-5-Sq-Miles-World-s-Largest-Solar-Farm-Becomes-Fully-Operational
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #70 on: December 08, 2014, 06:38:33 pm »
Australian scientists announce solar energy breakthrough  :o  ;D

AFP

December 7, 2014 1:47 PM
 

In Australia, researchers were able to convert more than 40 percent of sunlight hitting solar panels …

     
Australian scientists said Monday they had made a breakthrough in increasing the efficiency of solar panels, which they hope could eventually lead to cheaper sources of renewable energy.

In what the University of New South Wales described as a world first, the researchers were able to convert more than 40 percent of sunlight hitting the panels into electricity.

"This is the highest efficiency ever reported for sunlight conversion into electricity," UNSW Professor Martin Green said in a statement.

"We used commercial solar cells, but in a new way, so these efficiency improvements are readily accessible to the solar industry."

While traditional methods use one solar cell, which limits the conversion of sunlight to electricity to about 33 percent, the newer technology splits the sunlight into four different cells, which boosts the conversion levels, Green told AFP.

The record efficiency level was achieved in tests in Sydney and replicated at the United States government's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the university said.


The prototype technology is set to be harnessed by Australian company RayGen Resources for solar power towers, which use sun-tracking mirrors to focus sunlight on a tall building.

Green is hopeful the technology can also eventually be used for solar panels mounted on people's roofs, which he said currently had a 15 to 18 percent efficiency rate.

"The panels that you have on the roof of your home, at the moment they just have a single cell but eventually they'll have several different cells... and they'll be able to improve their efficiency to this kind of level," he told AFP.

Green said strides in technology made in the solar industry such as the higher conversion levels were helping to drive down the cost of renewable energy.

He was confident that in a decade solar-generated electricity would be cheaper than that produced by coal.
http://finance.yahoo.com/news/australian-scientists-announce-solar-energy-breakthrough-184749908--finance.html
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #71 on: December 17, 2014, 03:44:49 pm »


Example of Concentrated PV (CPV) technology


Let's see the thermodynamics challenged fossil fuelers claim manufacturing the above uses "too much energy" and it will "never harvest more energy than that used to manufacture it".

12/17/2014 12:31 PM     
Solar Prices Keep Dropping, NREL Achieves 46% Efficiency for Concentrating Solar Cells

SustainableBusiness.com News

Over the past few months, we've seen announcements of solar cells that are reaching new heights for converting the sun's energy into electricity, showing how quickly the technology is advancing.

 The latest is from the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), which has demonstrated 45.7% conversion efficiency for concentrating solar cells - more than double the typical 20% efficiency today.

 It greatly improves on earlier designs by incorporating an additional high quality absorber layer to achieve an ultra-high efficiency, says NREL. 

Multijunction solar cells harvest sunlight by dividing the solar spectrum into portions that are absorbed by a material with a bandgap tuned to a specific wavelength range. Combining materials with optimal bandgaps is critical for high efficiency. The challenge is to maintain the high quality of the materials while integrating them into a complex cell capable of efficient photoconversion.

"The distinction of this multijunction device is the very high quality of the lattice-mismatched subcells," says Ryan France, who designed the solar cell. "Lattice-mismatched materials require the introduction of defects, called dislocations, into the device, which can drastically hinder device performance. NREL has learned to control and confine these dislocations to inactive regions of the device, allowing even highly mismatched material to be used in a multijunction cell."

This graph shows research achievements for all kinds of solar cells, with NREL's new one reaching the highest level yet:  



Prices Keep Dropping

 In 2013, system prices for utility-scale solar PV fell below $2 per watt, and have continued declining this year to $1.80 per watt - 59% lower than in 2010, according to NREL and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.

Prices for distributed solar PV systems dropped 12-19% in the US during 2013, and will decline another 3-12% this year  ;D,  depending on where the system is located and market segment. 


"There are significant variations in reported pricing both geographically and across market segments due to a variety of factors, including value-based pricing based on local competition within the marketplace and prevailing electric retail rates. Other factors include differences in specific system configurations such as panel efficiency, mounting structure, and geographic location; and the time lags between commitments and commercial operation for utility-scale systems."

 Industry analysts expect this trend to continue over the next couple of years, keeping the US on track to meet DOE's  SunShot target - reducing the cost of solar PV below $1 per watt by 2020.

In another report, The Effect of State Policy Suites on the Development of Solar Markets, NREL finds that falling solar prices are benefiting some states more than others. Those with strong policies for interconnection and net metering benefit the most, and the length of time these policies have been in place are also important indicators of market success.

Read our article, US Solar Rises 41% in 2013, Greatest Year on Record. 

Learn more about NREL's new solar cell:
 Website: www.nrel.gov/news/press/2014/15436.html

http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/26060?

More Agelbert Googled images of CPV technology examples: 



Moore's law at WORK in SOLAR technology!



Nice dish! ;D  It's cheaper to make this CPV dish with lots of angled FLAT (as in cheap to make) small mirrors than making a large concave mirror dish. I admit wind damage and mean looks from the neighbors as well as fossil fueler inspired municipal code violations :P can make things "difficult" for the brave person that puts this dish on their garage. 


Nicer dishes!  ;D


The Fresnel lens approach has its advantages because it is flat for aesthetic quality, weather resistance and code compliance with nasty, negative negariod fossil fuelers in town councils.



Renewable energy=                                 =Fossil Fuelers
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #72 on: December 24, 2014, 12:52:17 am »
12/23/2014 05:29 PM   
Solar Floats On Water Around the World

SustainableBusiness.com News

Last year, Japan's largest solar plant came online, a 70 MW Kyocera project with 290,000 solar panels that juts way out into Kagoshima Bay.

 Now, Kyocera will build one that's completely detached from the land, on a reservoir in Japan (Yamakura Dam). At 13.4 MW, it will have 50,000 modules covering 180,000 square meters of water - the largest floating solar project in the world so far. The company is also building two smaller ones totaling 2.9 MW.


South Korea Sunflower floating PV power plant

 In fact, floating solar projects are becoming popular with small installations in Britain (200 kW), Italy, and soon, in Singapore, India - which is installing them on canals and on reservoirs - and South Korea - which wants to install 4 GW of solar on 5% of its water surfaces.

There are lots of interesting benefits to floating solar over water:

•Water offers a stable surface, full exposure to the sun, and installation is cheaper;

•The entire PV plant can easily be moved, tracking and rotating with the sun;

•Water cools the modules, increasing energy production by 10%; during warm months, the ground heats up on land, reducing output;

•They reduce algae growth in the water, keeping it healthier for wildlife;

•They reduce evaporation, helping preserve water levels during warm months, which provides security for farmers;

•They are important for countries like Japan, where there's little available land
.

Because of all these advantages, South Korea's Sunflower Solar Power Plant is expected to produce 22% more energy than a comparable ground-mounted PV project.

One thing we haven't heard about is the potential negative affect on marine life from large projects that darken the surface water.

http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/26071
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #73 on: December 30, 2014, 04:15:13 pm »





Utility-scale Solar Has Another Record Year in 2014


Lead by North America, utility-scale solar installations will pass the 10 GW mark.

 Renewable Energy World Editors 
 December 30, 2014

 New Hampshire --  Utility-scale solar installations will surge for a fifth consecutive year in 2014, according to provisional figures released this week by Wiki-Solar.org, which defined utility-scale as projects greater than 4 MW in capacity. New global total installed capacity for the year already exceeds 10 GW, and is expected to climb further, when the official figures are available in March.



For the first time, Africa and South America show significant new capacity to join the traditional lead continents of North America, Asia and Europe. Only Oceania is refusing to join the solar era, dogged in particular by policy reversals in Australia.

Africa’s contribution is led by South Africa, whose largest project — the 74 MW plant at Sishen — was commissioned in December. Meanwhile Chile is leading the charge in South America, with 13 new plants connected so far this year.

A good year for Japan, combined with continuing growth in China and India, should enable Asia to rival and possibly beat North America as top continent. However the leading country is again expected to be the U.S., where the world’s largest project — the 550 MW Topaz plant in California — was completed in November. Europe reversed a 2-year decline thanks largely to another bumper year in the UK, supported by steady growth in France.

Looking Ahead

Wiki-Solar’s Philip Wolfe anticipates another record year in 2015, with “continuing progress in the powerhouses of U.S., China and India; and support in particular from Chile, Japan and South Africa”.

“There will be pressure in the States to complete projects in the pipeline, because the future for tax incentives becomes uncertain from 2016,” he said. “Europe’s best market in the short term will remain the UK, which has now topped 2 GW and is likely to leapfrog India to the world’s #4 market by the end of March. This position may prove temporary, because large-scale solar becomes ineligible for the UK’s Renewables Obligation from 1st April. Perhaps France, which has recently started Europe’s largest plant at Cestas will then take up the running.”

“I’m expecting South America to overtake Africa over the next year or two”, says Wolfe, “especially as Brazil starts to build the projects which were successful in its recent auction, to add to a huge project pipeline in Chile.”



http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2014/12/utility-scale-solar-has-another-record-year-in-2014


El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

AGelbert

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Re: Photvoltaics (PV)
« Reply #74 on: January 08, 2015, 12:43:40 am »
01/07/2015 02:21 PM     
Almost 4000 US Schools Are Running On Solar 

SustainableBusiness.com News


Few places benefit more from solar than our public schools, where the energy savings can literally make the difference in being able to pay teacher salaries and buy textbooks.

 The first study of solar at US schools finds installations at 3,752 K-12 schools, reaching nearly 2.7 million students. The schools are saving a combined $77.8 million a year on utility bills - an average of almost $21,000 a year per school.

Over the past 10 years, solar has grown from just 303 kilowatts to 490 megawatts (mostly in the last few years). Still, this is the tip of the "iceberg" of solar potential - there are 125,000 schools in the US, and 72,000 of them could also cost-effectively add solar, according to The Solar Foundation, the research arm of the Solar Energy Industries Association. 

This map (http://www.seia.org/map/solar-schools.php) shows all the schools with solar and the green/yellow dots show schools that would benefit depending on the price:

 The more solar prices drop, the more schools can afford it. If all the schools signed on, they would add 5.4 gigawatts of solar

In a time of tight budgets and rising costs, energy is the biggest bill for schools after peoples' salaries. Solar arrays at schools are also a great teaching tool on engineering, science and, of course, clean energy. 

As of September, K-Solar is being rolled out in NY State, a program that streamlines the process of adding solar for school districts. The goal is to guide schools through the entire process - from awareness to installation - in as little as six months, and 40 school districts (200 schools) have already signed on.   

Read, Brighter Future: A Study on Solar in U.S. Schools:
 
Website: http://thesolarfoundation.org/sites/thesolarfoundation.org/files/SOLAR-SCHOOLS-REPORT-FINAL.pdf

http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.display/id/26079
El viento sopla de donde quiere, y oyes su sonido; mas ni sabes de dónde viene, ni a dónde va;
así es todo aquel que es nacido del Espíritu. Juan 2:8

 

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