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Author Topic: Batteries  (Read 7467 times)

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Re: Batteries
« Reply #75 on: January 18, 2018, 03:27:34 pm »

Tesla’s Battery in Australia Is Surpassing Expectations

January 17, 2018

By Dylan McConnell

It’s just over one month since the Hornsdale Power Reserve was officially opened in South Australia at the Hornsdale wind farm. The excitement surrounding the project has generated acres of media interest, both locally and abroad.

The aspect that has generated the most interest is the battery’s rapid response time in smoothing out several major energy outages that have occurred since it was installed.

Following the early success of the South Australia model, Victoria has also secured an agreement to get its own Tesla battery built near the town of Stawell. Victoria’s government will be tracking the Hornsdale battery’s early performance with interest.

Generation and Consumption

Since there are losses associated with energy storage, it is a net consumer of energy. This is often described in terms of “round trip efficiency,” a measure of the energy out to the energy in. In this case, the round trip efficiency appears to be roughly 80 percent.

The figure below shows the input and output from the battery over the month. As can be seen, on several occasions the battery has generated as much as 100 MW of power, and consumed 70 MW of power. The regular operation of the battery moves between generating 30 MW and consuming 30 MW of power.

Over the full month of December, the Hornsdale power reserve generated 2.42 GWh of energy, and consumed 3.06 GWh.

As can be seen, the generation and consumption pattern is rather “noisy,” and doesn’t really appear to have a pattern at all. This is true even on a daily basis, as can be seen below. This is related to services provided by the battery.

Generation and consumption of the Hornsdale Power Reserve over the month of December 2018. Author provided [data from AEMO]

Frequency Control Ancillary Services

There are eight different Frequency Control Ancillary Services (FCAS) markets in the National Electricity Market (NEM). These can be put into two broad categories: contingency services and regulation services.

Contingency Services

Contingency services essentially stabilize the system when something unexpected occurs. These are called credible contingencies. The tripping (isolation from the grid) of large generator is one example.

When such unexpected events occur, supply and demand are no longer balanced, and the frequency of the power system moves away from the normal operating range. This happens on a very short timescale. The contingency services ensure that the system is brought back into balance and that the frequency is returned to normal within five minutes.

In the NEM there are three separate timescales over which these contingency services should be delivered: six seconds, 60 seconds, and five minutes. As the service may have to increase or decrease the frequency, there is thus a total of six contingency markets (three that raise frequency in the timescales above, and three that reduce it).

This is usually done by rapidly increasing or decreasing output from a generator (or battery in this case), or rapidly reducing or increasing load. This response is triggered at the power station by the change in frequency.

To do this, generators (or loads) have some of their capacity “enabled” in the FCAS market. This essentially means that a proportion of its capacity is set aside, and available to respond if the frequency changes. Providers get paid for the amount of megawatts they have enabled in the FCAS market.

This is one of the services that the Hornsdale Power Reserve has been providing. The figure below shows how the Hornsdale Power Reserve responded to one incident on power outage, when one of the units at Loy Yang A tripped on December 14, 2017.

Regulation Services

The regulation services are a bit different. Similar to the contingency services, they help maintain the frequency in the normal operating range. And like contingency, regulation may have to raise or lower the frequency, and as such there are two regulation markets.

However, unlike contingency services, which essentially wait for an unexpected change in frequency, the response is governed by a control signal, sent from the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO).

In essence, AEMO controls the throttle, monitors the system frequency, and sends a control signal out at a four-second interval. This control signal alters the output of the generator such that the supply and demand balanced is maintained.

This is one of the main services that the battery has been providing. As can be seen, the output of the battery closely follows the amount of capacity it has enabled in the regulation market.

The Hornsdale Power Reserve responding to a drop in system frequency. Author provide [data from AEMO']

More Batteries to Come   

Not to be outdone by its neighboring state, the Victorian government has also recently secured an agreement for its own Tesla battery. This agreement, in conjunction with a wind farm near the town of Stawell, should see a battery providing similar services in Victoria.

This battery may also provide additional benefits to the grid. The project is located in a part of the transmission network that AEMO has indicated may need augmentation in the future. This project might illustrate the benefits the batteries can provide in strengthening the transmission network.

It’s still early days for the Hornsdale Power Reserve, but it’s clear that it has been busy performing essential services and doing so at impressive speeds. Importantly, it has provided regular frequency control ancillary services — not simply shifting electricity around.

With the costs and need for frequency control service increasing in recent years, the boost to supply through the Hornsdale Power Reserve is good news for consumers, and a timely addition to Australia’s energy market.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Lead image credit: CC0 Creative Commons | Pixabay


Agelbert NOTE:For smoothing electrical energy demand and preventing appliance damaging frequency and voltage fluctuations, no fossil fuel or nuclear power generating plant can EVER match the lightning speed and reliability of a large battery system.

The only thing that comes close, but still takes seconds (causing brief frequency and voltage fluctuations that you don't notice but your electronics certainly do not like), instead of the lightning fast battery response of fractions of a second, is hydroelectric power because valves can quickly force torrents of water through pelton wheels powering electricity generators.

Battery systems are the Renewable Energy smoothing solution to the problem of intermittent solar, wind, tide, hydro, etc. because they provide an added guarantee of uninterrupted clean power that totally eliminates the need for alleged "baseload" coal or nuclear AND natural gas super expensive peaking power plants.

This has been known by the fossil fuelers for at least a half a century. That is why they continue to do everything they can to stop these systems from coming online. We need fossil fuel and nuclear dirty energy sources like  like a dog needs ticks.  >:(

If we survive the present Trumpism dystopic stupidity, I believe all the excess Renewable Energy harvested from facilities that are being built all over the world will eventually be stored, not just in battery systems and dams, but also in potential energy systems (massive cable suspended weights in subterranean structures up to a thousand feet long) that can kinetically power generators by gravity even faster than hydroelectric power.

Many people do not realize that, at present, a great deal of generated energy by fossil fuel and nuclear power is thrown away in what is called "shunting". As you read in the article above, a certain amount of power capacity HAS TO be kept off line so that when a demand spike shows up, the frequency and voltage do not get out of acceptable limits.

All this is because conventional polluting power sources like coal and nuclear are TOO SLOW in the ramp up and ramp down. 

Also, those peaking power plants that use natural gas are, though much quicker, still too slow to avoid the huge amounts of shunted energy thown away routinely.

Renewable Energy and battery systems have the potential to reduce shunting to a fraction of what it is today and eventually eliminate this wasteful process altogether. Fossil Fuelers and Nuke Pukes don't like to talk about shunting because, aside from the polluting piggery , Shunting is their horrendously wasteful Achilles Heel.

In the future, I envision large battery systems as mainly a smoothing technology used to coordinate all the Renewable Energy coming in and storing it when there is an excess, while providing millisecond smooth frequency and voltage instant power until the hydroelectric and/or gravity systems come online a second or three later.  The present six seconds, 60 seconds, and five minutes time scales will be relegated to the cave man days of fossil fuel and nuclear polluting energy sources.  ;D

There is no place for slow starting dirty energy generation in this truly practical and sustainable picture involving supplying clean, non-polluting power to human civilization.

The Fossil Fuelers DID THE Clean Energy  Inventions suppressing, Climate Trashing, human health depleting CRIME,   but since they have ALWAYS BEEN liars and conscience free crooks, they are trying to AVOID   DOING THE TIME or     PAYING THE FINE!     Don't let them get away with it! Pass it on!   
Rob not the poor, because he is poor: neither oppress the afflicted in the gate:
For the Lord will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those that spoiled them. Pr. 22:22-23


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