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Author Topic: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)  (Read 947 times)

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AGelbert

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Re: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
« Reply #15 on: May 23, 2016, 07:14:36 pm »
Agelbert NOTE: This one year old article already showed the way to heliostat environmentally sound solutions AND explained how the fossil fuelers try to condemn heliostats:
Quote
Power tower solar has been under a cloud — in the U.S., anyway — after 321 birds or bats were killed in the first 6 months of operation by flying through solar flux above the Ivanpah Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant, the Google-funded colossus in California’s Mojave desert.

Opponents  then greatly exaggerated the numbers, making it a challenge for California regulators to maintain a level-headed approach to permitting future power tower projects.


Standby is the high risk position for birds.

http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2015/04/solar-flux-solution-brightens-future-of-concentrated-solar-power?cmpid=SolarNL-Saturday-April18-2015

SOME FACTS the fossil fuelers IGNORE: Fossil-fueled facilities are 17-34 times more dangerous to birds on a per GWh basis than wind power. Heliostats, LESS dangerous than wind power to birds,  have caused the deaths of hundreds of birds and wind turbines may have killed about 7000 birds, but fossil-fueled stations killed 14.5 million and nuclear 327,000.

http://www.nukefree.org/news/avianmortalityfromwindpower,fossil-fuel,andnuclearelectricity

http://cleantechnica.com/2013/11/26/wind-farm-bird-deaths-fossil-fuel-nuclear-bird-deaths/

Quote
fossils 34 times wind.

Buildings, power lines and cats are estimated to comprise approximately 82 percent of the mortality, vehicles 8 percent, pesticides 7 percent, communication towers 0.5 percent, and wind turbines 0.003 percent.


http://www.dialight.com/Assets%5CApplication_Notes%5CSignaling%5CObstruction%20Lighting%20Bird%20Strike%20Study.pdf

Here is an objective scientific study of Heliostat technology. They would not have been built in the first place if they weren't MORE cost effective than polluting fossil fuel power plants and dirty energy drilling operations. Anyone claiming otherwise is ignorant or energy math challenged.

State of the Art in Heliostats and Definition of Specifications

STAGE-STE Project

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL ALLIANCE FOR GUARANTEEING THE EUROPEAN EXCELLENCE IN CONCENTRATING SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY
Grant agreement number: 609837
Start date of project: 01/02/2014
Duration of project:48 months
WP12 – Task 1.1
Deliverable 12.1
Due date:07/2014
Submitted 12/2014
File name: STAGESTE_Deliverable_12_1_Draft
Partner responsible CIEMAT, IK4-TKN, CENER
Person responsible F. Téllez, C. Villasante, M. Burisch
Author(s) /Contributions:F. Téllez (CIEMAT); M. Burisch (CENER); Villasente (IK4-TKN); M. Sánchez (CENER); C. Sansom, P. Kirby, P. Turner (CRANFIELD); C. Caliot, A. Ferriere (CNRS); C A. Bonanos, C. Papanicolas, A Montenon (CYI); R.Monterreal (CIEMAT); J.Fernández (CIEMAT)
Reviewed by:  M. Collares
Dissemination Level PU


List of content
Executive Summary ... 3
1 Introduction ... 5
2 Heliostat Optional Designs ... 7
2.1. Heliostat Components ... 11
2.2. Reflecting Module ... 14
2.3. Foundation ... 16
2.4. Structure ... 17
2.5. Drive Mechanism ... 19
2.6. Heliostat Control ... 23
2.7. Canting ... 24
3 Heliostat Deployment Worldwide................................................................................................... 27
4 Heliostat’s Cost ... 39
4.1. Cost Reduction Potential ... 41
5 Heliostat Functional Specifications ................................................................................................ 48
5.1. Heliostat Typical Specifications ................................................................................................. 48
5.2. Minimal Functional Specifications for Small Heliostat ............................................................... 53
6 References / Bibliography ... 57


SNIPPET 1:   

Quote
The optimum heliostat size — if in fact one exists — will be better understood as the power tower industry continues to deploy and operate more systems. Power tower industry is forced at least by market and commercial constrains to design and produce optimum (cost-effective) heliostats, in the near, medium term to significantly reduce capital cost of CSP becoming more and more competitive in the energy market, CR technologies have the potential of leading Solar Power through effective cost reduction to competitiveness.

Starting with initial heliostat efforts in the early 1970s up to today, there has been a general tendency to increase the heliostat size from about 12 m2 to approximately 150-200 m2, with several counter-examples of much smaller heliostats, primarily in the past several years. So that, currently, there is no consensus among CR-CSP developers regarding the optimum size of a heliostat.

The tendency to favor larger heliostats during this period has apparently been based more in local experiences while building and testing the first prototypes than in a holistic analysis of the problem, leaving aside the benefits of mass production, lean manufacturing processes in terms of quality control and cost reduction both demanded by CR technologies in part on the assumed advantages of “economies of scale”.

An expected benefit with larger heliostats was that the fixed cost of some components that are needed per each unit of heliostat could be spread over a larger area, thus reducing the specific cost per unit area.

Other factors may have played a role in this general trend, such as availability of commercial drive units potentially offering high performance and low cost, or relaxing design criteria to achieve lower costs by increasing the reflector area to the maximum allowable for a given drive unit. In efforts to reduce the cost of the drive, a number of customized drive products have been developed by companies such as Sener [Lata2010], Flender Siemens [Siemens2008, Teufel2008, Kunert2009], Winsmith [Kolb2007, Winsmith2003] and Cone Drive [ConeDrive2013].

For smaller heliostats, the cost of the control and communication system also becomes an important cost driver favoring larger heliostats.


SNIPPET 2:

Quote

Table 3: Advantages and drawbacks appearing when heliostat size is varying.


Heliostat Increasing size


PROs
   
Increasing Benefit from the economics of enlargement

Reducing the number of heliostat leads to reducing the cost by:

taking as much advantage as possible from expensive high-tech components mainly high precision tracking systems,

Lowering the specific operation and maintenance costs   


CONs               

Increase of torques from wind loads, resulting in higher specific weight and higher specific drive power. Thus the level of demand in the technical specifications of the heliostat’s tracking system increases with the size.

On-site heliostat assembly is difficult (facilities not well-equipped, not easily automated and time consuming processes are involved such as canting);

Canting accuracy becomes critical for a large heliostat. (For large heliostat fields where last row of heliostats could be placed at several kilometers from the solar tower, to be able to concentrate, large area heliostat need to keep their theoretical curvature).

Land use might be worse with large heliostats and the long distance heliostats provide worse optical efficiency.

Strong limitations when applying mass productions and lean manufacturing processes

SNIPPET 3:

Quote
There are now 226,852 heliostats in operation (Table 5) with a total mirror surface of about 3.3 millions of square meters. The figures for the heliostats to be implemented in the plants (and/or facilities) under construction are very similar: about 238,000 heliostats with a total surface of about 2 million square meters.

The total number of heliostats by adding the plants under development and planned to the operational and under construction plants, amounts to 835,838 heliostat units with a total mirror surface of about 17 million square meters.

https://www.stage-ste.eu/deliverables/STAGE_STE_Deliverable_12_1.pdf

I REPEAT, Heliostats would not have been built in the first place if they weren't MORE cost effective than polluting fossil fuel power plants and dirty energy drilling operations.

The FACT that they are building so many MORE of them is evidence that they DO produce cheaper Electricity than polluting energy sources. Anyone claiming otherwise is ignorant or energy math challenged.



Renewable energy=                                =Fossil Fuelers
Leges         Sine    Moribus     Vanae   
Faith,
if it has not works, is dead, being alone.

AGelbert

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Re: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
« Reply #16 on: June 06, 2016, 08:10:16 pm »
Dubai to Build World’s Largest Concentrated Solar Power Plant

Lorraine Chow | June 6, 2016 11:11 am

Dubai will soon be home to the world’s largest concentrated solar power plant.

The Dubai Water and Electricity Authority (DEWA) has announced the second phase of a massive solar project located in the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park. According to a press release, the park is the largest single-site project to generate electricity from solar energy in the world, based on an independent power producer model.

The 13-megawatt first phase of the project has been operational since October 2013 and the 200-megawatt second phase will be operational by April 2017. The facility will ultimately produce 1,000 megawatts by 2020 and 5,000 megawatts by 2030, which will provide power for 800,000 homes. The solar park will help reduce 6.5 million tonnes of carbon emissions annually, the release said.

The project easily trounces the capacity of the world’s current record-holder, the Noor-Ouarzazate plant in Morocco which will have a 580-megawatt capacity by 2018.

Noor-Ouarzazate plant in Morocco 

DEWA has already received five bids from international companies for the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park’s 800-megawatt third phase, with the lowest bid at USD 2.99 cents per kilowatt, a record-low price for solar power.

The ambitious project is part of the Dubai Clean Energy Strategy 2050, which aims to provide 7 percent of the emirate’s total power output from clean energy sources by 2020, 25 percent by 2030 and 75 percent by 2050, Saeed Mohammed Al Tayer, DEWA CEO and managing director, said in a statement.

In this June 2 post from DEWA’s Twitter account, Al Tayer announced the project:

The project is called a “concentrated solar plant” because it consists of a large number of movable mirrors, or heliostats, that can follow the sun’s path and harness sunlight to melt salt. The molten salt stores energy and can be used to power a steam turbine, allowing for energy production even when the sun isn’t shining.

“An important advantage of [concentrated solar power] is that thermal heat, which is used to produce electricity, can be stored easily, which makes it possible to produce electricity after sunset,” Al Tayer said. “The plant will have several thousand heliostats located around a tower that receives the radiation reflected by the heliostats which follow the sun’s movement. The heat-transfer fluid is then used to power the steam turbine to generate electricity.

“The project will use thermal storage for 8-12 hours daily, taking into account technical and economic factors. This will contribute to improving the effectiveness and efficiency of production and meet the requirements of the electricity grid. This in turn, will provide sustainable world-class energy supply for everyone in terms of availability and reliability, and support the sustainable development of the emirate. It will contribute to making Dubai the city with the lowest carbon footprint in the world by 2050.”


In addition to generating power, the facility features a solar-powered water pumping and desalination station that has a production capacity of 50 cubic meters of potable water a day, the press release stated.

Al Tayer said that DEWA is working to diversify Dubai’s energy mix to include 61 percent from natural gas, 25 percent from solar energy, 7 percent from coal and 7 percent from nuclear power by 2030. The reliance on clean energy sources will be increased incrementally to touch 75 percent by 2050, he added.

“Our wise leadership is pursuing the transformation towards clean and renewable energy to achieve a vision that recognizes their significance in achieving a balance between development and sustainability. This will help protect the rights of future generations to live in a clean, healthy and safe environment,” Al Tayer said.       

https://ecowatch.com/2016/06/06/dubai-concentrated-solar-plant/

Agelbert NOTE: Heliostats have a tremendous future in the high sunlight, dry areas of the planet. The Government of Dubai understands this.

 
Quote
There are now 226,852 heliostats in operation (Table 5) with a total mirror surface of about 3.3 millions of square meters. The figures for the heliostats to be implemented in the plants (and/or facilities) under construction are very similar: about 238,000 heliostats with a total surface of about 2 million square meters.

The total number of heliostats by adding the plants under development and planned to the operational and under construction plants, amounts to 835,838 heliostat units with a total mirror surface of about 17 million square meters.
https://www.stage-ste.eu/deliverables/STAGE_STE_Deliverable_12_1.pdf

Heliostats would not have been built in the first place if they weren't more cost effective than polluting fossil fuel power plants and dirty energy drilling operations. Heliostats are a welcome contribution to our renewable energy mix.

The fact that they are building so many more of them is evidence that they do produce cheaper Electricity than polluting energy sources. Anyone claiming otherwise is in error.

Fossil-fueled facilities are 17-34 times more dangerous to birds on a per GWh basis than wind power. Heliostats, LESS dangerous than wind power to birds, have caused the deaths of hundreds of birds and wind turbines may have killed about 7000 birds, but fossil-fueled stations killed 14.5 million and nuclear 327,000.
Leges         Sine    Moribus     Vanae   
Faith,
if it has not works, is dead, being alone.

AGelbert

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Re: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
« Reply #17 on: September 14, 2016, 01:27:59 pm »
China will start up 20 solar thermal power plants by 2018: NEA
   
China will start up its first batch of 20 solar thermal power projects online by 2018, said the National Energy Administration(NEA) on Wednesday.

The projects with a total capacity of 1.35 gigawatt are concentrated in the five provinces that receive the most sunlight in the nation, Qinghai, Gansu, Hebei, Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang, said the NEA.
Quote

Solar thermal power plant use solar arrays to heat water that produces steam that runs turbines to produce electricity.

Power plants operators such as China General Nuclear Power Group, China Huaneng Group [HUANP.UL], China Guodian Corp [CNGUO.UL] and Zhejiang Supcon Solar Technology Co are involved, said the NEA.
 
These projects will collect a higher price from grid operators than traditional solar projects using photovoltaic cells at 1.15 yuan ($0.17) per kilowatt hour.
 
But that price level will be reduced in 2019 in accordance with the industry's development, said the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) in a statement released earlier this month.


(Reporting By Kathy Chen and David Stanway; Editing by Christian Schmollinger)

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-power-solar-idUSKCN11K11O
Leges         Sine    Moribus     Vanae   
Faith,
if it has not works, is dead, being alone.

AGelbert

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Re: Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
« Reply #18 on: May 25, 2017, 07:04:33 pm »
Abu Dhabi's government-owned power utility has closed a 3.2 billion dirham ($872 million) financing package for what will be the world's largest solar power plant , the utility's top official said on Wednesday.

Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority (ADWEA) raised $650 million in debt with the remaining $222 million raised in equity, Director General Saif Saleh al-Sayari told reporters.

A consortium of Japan's Marubeni Corp and China's JinkoSolar Holding were selected this year to build and operate the 1,177 megawatt plant.

“The financing which is completed is a $650 million project finance from local and international commercial banks,” al-Sayari said, adding that the 25-year loan is structured in a way that will allow refinancing after five years.

Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi was the leading arranger of the loan along with three other Japanese banks – Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, Mitsubishi UFJ Trust and Norinchukin Bank.

French Banks – BNP Paribas Credit Agricole, Natixis - and First Abu Dhabi Bank were also part of the deal.

The equity portion will be contributed by ADWEA and the project developers Marubeni and JinkoSolar.

Construction of the independent solar plant with a capacity of 1,177 megawatts will begin immediately with completion scheduled for the second quarter of 2019.

The project is ADWEA'S first foray into renewable energy. Abu Dhabi aims to generate 7 percent of its energy from renewables by 2020; the government's green energy firm Masdar has launched renewable energy projects including solar plants.

The winning bidders offered to provide electricity for 2.42 cents per kilowatt hour, one of the most competitive prices seen in the solar industry.

A special purpose company, Sweihan PV Power Company, has been formed to operate the project, located east of the city of Abu Dhabi, capital of the United Arab Emirates. ADWEA holds 60 percent of the company while Marubeni and JinkoSolar each hold 20 percent.

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-abu-dhabi-solar-financing-idUSKBN18K1LG
Leges         Sine    Moribus     Vanae   
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if it has not works, is dead, being alone.

 

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