Renewable Revolution

Energy => Renewables => Topic started by: AGelbert on November 21, 2013, 02:49:24 pm

Title: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on November 21, 2013, 02:49:24 pm
Yes, the article is over a year old but the technology is still there and still working GREAT! It's another innovative example of storing energy to avoid peak demands or spikes using a type of battery with UNLIMITED CHARGE CYCLES!  (

Is That Onions You Smell? Or Battery Juice?

Gills Onions, a food processing company based in Oxnard, Calif., needs copious amounts of electricity for refrigeration, lighting and other jobs, and it sets an example by making its own, using onion waste. But it recently became a little greener — and more economical — by adding an enormous battery.

Gills processes about a million pounds of onions a day. Of that, about 300,000 pounds a day — the tops, bottoms and outer peels — is waste. “We slice, we dice, we whole-peel,’’ said Nikki Rodoni, a spokeswoman. Disposing of that material involved considerable labor as well as diesel fuel for the trucks, and storing it on site made the company unpopular with neighbors, she said.

So a few years ago Gills switched to squeezing the wastes to produce about 30,000 gallons of juice. It might not be to human tastes, but it is rich in sugars and attractive to bacteria.

The juice goes into a device called an anaerobic digester, basically an oxygen-free chamber, where bacteria break it down and produce methane gas. After it is cleaned and dried, the methane is fed to two fuel cells that quietly and cleanly covert it to 600 kilowatts of electricity. (The remainder of the onion waste becomes cattle feed.)


That cost $10.8 million, but it worked well. Still, at some hours, Gills needs far more than 600 kilowatts — about three times as much. Then it must buy electricity from Southern California Edison, and for Gills, that posed two problems.

One was that it was buying energy at the most expensive time of the day, weekday afternoons, when the system’s loads are high. The other is that commercial customers like Gills pay not only for energy, but also for peak capacity, or the highest level of power demand that they require in the course of a month.

So it is now taking a second, unusual approach to electricity, harnessing a gigantic battery built by Prudent Energy of Bethesda, Md. The Prudent battery is the same in principle as many others, with a liquid electrolyte that can shuttle ions back and forth to absorb current or create it. But it has external tanks to store huge volumes of electrolyte and takes up a space the size of a tennis court.

The battery can absorb or give back another 600 kilowatts for as long as six hours. Fully charged, it holds enough energy to run a large suburban house for about four months.

In California, with time-of-use rates, the electricity can be bought at night for less than half what it costs during the day. It is not pure savings because the battery loses 10 to 30 percent of the energy in the round trip from the grid to the battery and back out again on its way to the electricity-using device.

But in addition to letting the company pay nighttime prices for electricity used in the daytime, the battery provides a kind of insurance: it can step in instantaneously if one of the fuel cells unexpectedly shuts down, according to Jeff Pierson, senior vice president of Prudent. That prevents a spike in Gills’s demand from the grid and thus eliminates higher demand charges.

The two companies did not disclose the price of the battery. It will initially be owned by Prudent, with Gills having an option to buy it later. Called a vanadium battery for the material used in the electrolyte, it is the largest of its kind in the world, Mr. Pierson said. He suggested that similar ones could be installed around the country.

“This time-of-use play is not unique to California,’’ he said. “There are plenty of other places around the country where you have that sort of differential between off-peak and peak.’’

Batteries like this one have a variety of potential uses. Grid operators around the country are looking for storage devices that can accept signals to draw power off the system or give it back on short notice — usually at four-second intervals — to balance supply and demand and keep the alternating current system properly synchronized.

And on the West Coast, electric grid operators are going to greater lengths to find ways to compensate for sudden surges or drops in generation from wind or solar installations. Batteries like Prudent’s can do both, although the one at Gills is not currently set up for those tasks.

For more information:
Prudent Energy Corporation(

7200 Wisconsin Avenue | 10th Floor | Bethesda, MD | 20814-7227
Main: 1-301-825-8910 | Fax: 1-301-825-8914 |

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on December 13, 2013, 11:20:57 pm
DoE Energy Storage Report Praised By ESA

The US Department of Energy has released their Grid Energy Storage report to the members of the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, identifying the benefits of grid energy storage, the challenges to be addressed, and the current efforts being made to meet those selfsame challenges.

In response, the Electricity Storage Association has publicly praised the report, “noting that it affirms that wide-scale deployment of storage technologies in the U.S. and around the world is critical to maintaining a resilient, cost-effective electric grid.”

“The ESA is pleased that the Department of Energy will be providing analysis, tools, and opportunities for public-private partnerships–playing to the strengths of the agency while enhancing the ability of the energy storage industry to move forward with commercialization,” said Darrell Hayslip, Chairman of the Electricity Storage Association. ”The report certainly reinforces our view that storage is an essential component to a more resilient, reliable, and balanced energy grid. ESA believes that it is not a matter of whether storage will be deployed; it is a matter of how fast that occurs. Given the focus indicated in this report, DOE is poised to assist in those efforts.”

“Energy storage is a vital component of a more resilient, reliable and efficient electric grid,” said Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz. “We must continue developing innovative energy storage technologies and finding new ways to ensure wider adoption to help move the nation closer to the grid of the future.”

Portland General Electric’s Salem Smart Power Center includes a large-scale energy storage system.
Image Credit: Portland General via Flickr

The report highlights four challenges that must be addressed if energy storage is to be widely developed and accepted:

the development of cost-effective energy storage technologies

validated reliability and safety

an equitable regulatory environment

industry acceptance

The DoE noted that energy storage is ultimately necessary now, more than ever, given the increasing trend towards renewable energies which are inherently unstable in their energy production — solar relying on daylight and cloudless skies, wind on strong winds, etc. Incorporating energy storage into the grid will become more and more necessary, as these energy technologies will at times be producing more than is necessary — energy that will need to be stored — and sometimes producing less than is expected — at which point energy storage can step in to fill the gap.

“Developing and deploying energy storage opens the door to adding more renewable power to the grid, which is essential to the fight against climate change,” Wyden said. “Energy storage will also help lower consumer costs by saving low-cost power for peak times and making renewable energy available when it’s needed the most, not just when the wind is blowing or the sun is shining. I’m looking forward to working with Secretary Moniz to find ways to implement the DOE’s recommendations to make energy storage an integral part of our country’s electricity grid.”

The Department of Energy released four key strategies from the report:

Cost-competitive energy storage technology can be achieved through research, resolving economic and performance barriers, and creating analytical tools for design, manufacturing, innovation and deployment.

The reliability and safety of energy storage technologies can be validated through research and development, creation of standard testing protocols, independent testing against utility requirements, and documenting the performance of installed systems.

Establishing an equitable regulatory environment is possible by conducting public-private evaluations of grid benefits, exploring technology-neutral mechanisms for monetizing grid services, and developing industry and regulatory agency-accepted standards for siting, grid integration, procurement and performance evaluation.

Industry acceptance can be achieved through field trials and demonstrations and use of industry-accepted planning and operational tools to incorporate storage onto the grid.

This report goes a long way to increasing the awareness of the need for energy storage, but comes in the wake of other good news, as late November the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission adopted Order 792.

As FERC explained when issuing Order 792:

the Commission finds it necessary under section 206 of the Federal Power Act to revise the pro forma SGIP [Small Generator Interconnection Procedures] and pro forma SGIA [Small Generator Interconnection Agreement] to ensure that the rates, terms and conditions under which public utilities provide interconnection service to Small Generating Facilities remain just and reasonable and not unduly discriminatory.

As Tina Casey explained in her November article, “Rule 792 adds energy storage as a power source that is eligible to connect to the grid. It effectively puts energy storage in the same category as the existing Small Generator Interconnection Procedures and makes it eligible for the existing Fast Track process.”

With Federal and academic support, not to mention enormous public support among clean energy supporters, energy storage is likely to soon be playing a much larger role in America’s energy future. Without a doubt there will still be stiff resistance from the entrenched energy market, but as solar and wind figures continue to grow, it is only a matter of time before the grid starts to see mass adoption of energy storage as a means to smooth out the intricacies of renewable energy delivery.  (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on December 13, 2013, 11:42:23 pm
Japanese energy giants rush into storage as solar booms

By Giles Parkinson on 4 December 2013

Japan is emerging as a hot-spot for energy storage projects, as utilities and technology companies look to battery-based solutions in response to the surge in solar PV installations.

Two new battery storage projects have been announced in the past week, with Toshiba to install a 20MWh/40MW lithium-ion battery project in Tohuku, and the island of Okinawa announcing a 2MW battery storage project on Tuesday.

Japan is expected to be the largest market for solar PV installations in 2013, with around 9GW to be installed following the introduction of feed in tariffs last year in response to the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

This year, the Japanese government launched a $300 million grant program to support the installation of large scale battery systems to help integrate renewables into the grid.  (

Bloomberg New Energy Finance reports that that the Toshiba system announced on November 26 will provide frequency regulation and operating reserves for Tohoku Electric. It is due to be commissioned in February next year.

On Okinawa, the country’s southern-most island, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry announced a 2MW lead battery storage system to respond to up to 57MW of solar farms of 300kW or more that are expected to be in place by the end of the year.

The ministry says this is reaching capacity for the island and new systems may not be able to be installed without storage. The 2MW system may increase the renewable capacity by around 10 per cent. The pilot project will be combined with another study into grid management.

Earlier this year, the northern island of Hokkaido also announced a 60MWh/15MW redox flow battery storage project would be built by Sumitomo because of the large amount of solar PV systems being installed.

Hokkaido Electric has received applications for 1.6GW of solar PV projects of 2MW or more, thanks to its large amounts of available land, but the utility estimates it can only cope with 400MW of that. It has only one 600MW inteconnecter with neighbouring Tohuku Electric.

Japan intends to reform its regional grid system and electricity market in the next few years to facilitate the introduction of more distributed energy. Currently 10 regional utilities are responsible for different sections of the grid and have a monopoly in each region for generation, transmission and distribution, and legislation is being introduced to loosen the control of the vertically-integrated utilities.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on January 23, 2014, 03:40:24 pm

Sweet Science: Researcher Develops Energy-dense Sugar Battery  (

Zeke Barlow, Virginia Tech
 January 23, 2014 

A Virginia Tech research team has developed a battery that runs on sugar and has an unmatched energy density, a development that could replace conventional batteries with ones that are cheaper, refillable, and biodegradable.

The findings from Y.H. Percival Zhang, an associate professor of biological systems engineering in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences and the College of Engineering, were published today in the journal Nature Communications.

While other sugar batteries have been developed, this one has an energy density an order of magnitude higher than others, allowing it to run longer before needing to be refueled, Zhang said.

In as soon as three years, Zhang's new battery could be running some of the cell phones, tablets, video games, and the myriad other electronic gadgets that require power in our energy-hungry world, Zhang said.

"Sugar is a perfect energy storage compound in nature," Zhang said. "So it's only logical that we try to harness this natural power in an environmentally friendly way to produce a battery."

In America alone, billions of toxic batteries are thrown away every year, posing a threat to both the environment and human health, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Zhang's development could help keep hundreds of thousands of tons of batteries from ending up in landfills.

This is one of Zhang's discoveries in the last year that utilize a series of enzymes mixed together in combinations not found in nature. He has published articles on creating edible starch from non-food plants and developed a new way to extract hydrogen in an economical and environmentally friendly way that can be used to power vehicles.

In this newest development, Zhang and his colleagues constructed a non-natural synthetic enzymatic pathway that strip all charge potentials from the sugar to generate electricity in an enzymatic fuel cell. Then, low-cost biocatalyst enzymes are used as catalyst instead of costly platinum, which is typically used in conventional batteries.

Like all fuel cells, the sugar battery combines fuel — in this case, maltodextrin, a polysaccharide made from partial hydrolysis of starch — with air to generate electricity and water as the main byproducts.

"We are releasing all electron charges stored in the sugar solution slowly step-by-step by using an enzyme cascade," Zhang said.

Different from hydrogen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells, the fuel sugar solution is neither explosive nor flammable and has a higher energy storage density. The enzymes and fuels used to build the device are biodegradable.

The battery is also refillable and sugar can be added to it much like filling a printer cartridge with ink.  ( (

Agelbert NOTE: IT'S ABOUT TIME Homo SAP started using and storing energy like the biosphere does (i.e.  releasing all electron charges stored in the sugar solution slowly step-by-step by using an enzyme cascade)!  (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on January 23, 2014, 04:15:39 pm
Jan 22, 2014

Laurie Guevara-​Stone

Writer / Editor

Batteries to Bolster Solar

Looking beyond SolarCity and Tesla’s backup system

When SolarCity and Tesla last month announced they were teaming up to offer battery backup for residential solar PV systems, they generated much excitement … and a disproportionate amount of press. From Greentech Media to the New York Times, stories abound about how the union of these two companies heralds the next stage in the evolution of distributed energy resources.



Yet solar-plus-storage has actually been around for decades. In fact, it was what kickstarted the solar industry in the early 1980s. A bunch of marijuana “farmers” in northern California who weren’t connected to the grid needed a way to get electric lights for their grow operations. A young hippie stumbled upon an ARCO solar panel at a consumer electronics show, and soon after founded AEE Solar and started powering off-grid homes with solar panels and car batteries, and his customers always paid in cash.

With the 1990s’ deregulation and incentives for solar PV, grid-connected systems became popular, and the only people worried about storage were those trying to electrify remote homes in lesser-developed countries. But solar and storage systems became a hot topic once again in 1999, when people were worried about Y2K and the potential end of society as we know it. “We were glad when homeowners wanted to learn about grid-tied PV systems with battery storage,” Johnny Weiss, founder of Solar Energy International, told RMI. “After January 1, 2000 came and went without disaster, interest in batteries clearly seemed to become less important.”

That interest is now back. Whether due to disasters like Superstorm Sandy, when millions of homes lost power, or to the ability of commercial customers to reduce hefty demand charges through peak shaving, the idea of putting solar and batteries together is gaining a lot of renewed attention.

Making Storage Sexy

The new SolarCity/Tesla partnership uses Tesla’s battery technology to offer backup power for SolarCity’s residential solar customers. However, the actual product offering is not that new; others have been offering similar products for years.

Green Charge Networks’ GreenStations and Stem’s battery systems, for example, decrease electrical costs for commercial and industrial customers by storing power during non-peak hours for use during peak periods. GreenStations have already been installed in multiple locations throughout New York City. Stem claims utility bills for companies using its storage system will be cut by 10–40 percent.

Then there’s Solar Grid Storage. Maryland’s first microgrid, installed this past October at Konterra headquarters, uses a 402 kW array with a Solar Grid Storage system that will keep 50 kW online for over four hours if the grid goes down. And on the residential side, NRG is offering solar canopies—shade structures constructed of photovoltaic panels with a battery to store the electricity for use at night or during a blackout. Utility companies are also getting into the game, with San Diego Borrego Springs and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District both currently testing home-level storage.

What is exciting is all the attention that is being drawn to it, thanks to the big names of Tesla and Solar City and the man that links them: Elon Musk. Musk seems to bring high visibility to anything he does, and the solar-plus-battery offering is no exception. “Both Solar City and Tesla are known to be insurgents and disruptors, ( and that’s why there’s so much attention on this particular offering,” says RMI senior associate Leia Guccione. While before not many people paid attention to solar-plus-battery systems, “Tesla adds that sexy element, where people are definitely paying attention now.”

Yet the significance is not that Tesla and Solar City are bringing us into a new paradigm, but that the solar-plus-storage idea is gaining a whole lot of traction. “For a long time battery energy storage was referred to as the holy grail of energy; people said it will become viable when we figure out cold fusion,” according to Guccione. “Now people know this is a technology that’s coming out of infancy, and more companies are coming out with commercial offerings. This is further evidence that battery energy storage is here and is here to stay.” RMI associate Bodhi Rader adds: “More people are entering the space. We could call this a game-changing moment.”

Beyond Backup

What’s even more exciting in the solar-plus-battery arena is what batteries offer beyond backup—to both solar PV and the grid and utilities. Voltage and frequency regulation. Black-start capability after macro- or microgrid outages. Using batteries as a less expensive alternative to peaking plants during high-demand periods. Demand charge reductions via peak shaving. Shifting load profiles with batteries to take better advantage of time-of-use electricity pricing. And the list goes on.

If current trends are any indication, soon batteries may become a common part of solar PV systems, including residential. “This will be a whole-home energy solution,” according to Guccione. “That’s where the next frontier is, and we hope to see SolarCity and Tesla go there.”

And pretty soon it won’t just be for those in the higher-income bracket. Bloomberg New Energy Finance predicts that battery storage costs will fall 57 percent by 2020. And Lux Research sees the global market for PV systems combined with battery storage growing from the current $200 million dollars a year to $2.8 billion in 2018.

“We look at economics as the thing that will bring the critical mass to the tipping point,” says Guccione. “There has to be a whole wave of first movers—but the increasingly favorable economics will evolve solar-plus-battery systems from early adopters to a mainstream solution.” And that’s why it is so exciting that more companies are starting to offer battery storage. Solar installers will start to get asked if they offer battery storage options more often, and with more demand and more players entering the field, the price will go down, utility companies will come up with innovative business models, and a solar system without battery storage will seem so last decade.

New business models will make it easy for customers to add storage to existing systems or build storage into new systems, through leasing and third-party financing models similar to what has made rooftop PV so accessible. And solar-plus-battery systems will be available to the masses, not just to off-grid pot farmers who can pay in cash. All good news for people wanting clean, reliable electricity.
Title: Tesla to create battery packs that "last long, are super safe & compact".
Post by: AGelbert on February 28, 2014, 06:06:37 pm
Musk Says Renewable Energy Shift to Bring ‘Strife’ for Utilities   ;D

 Mark Chediak and Alan Ohnsman, Bloomberg 
 February 28, 2014 

LOS ANGELES -- Tesla Motors Inc. Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk said shifting to greater use of solar and wind power will challenge utility companies.

The shift to much greater use of renewable energy will bring “some amount of strife for the existing utilities, especially for those invested more heavily in fossil fuels,” Musk, who is also chairman of solar-power company SolarCity Corp., said today at a California Public Utilities Commission event in San Francisco.

Tesla, the electric-car maker, based in Palo Alto, California, said yesterday it plans to invest as much as $5 billion to build the world’s largest battery factory. The company is seeking to drive down the cost of lithium-ion batteries used in its cars by at least 30 percent. Tesla also has developed a battery that could be used to provide backup power to homes, commercial sites and utilities, according to a regulatory filing yesterday.

Tesla is “working to create stationary battery packs that last long, are super safe and are compact,” Musk said.

Musk and his cousin, SolarCity CEO Lyndon Rive, spoke at the commission as part of its “Thought Leaders” series. The agency regulates power companies in the state.

“There is no doubt storage will become cost effective and deliver electricity with storage at night,” Rive said.

Utilities in California, which are taking months to connect residential solar panels to their systems, are delaying change because they profit from the current system, Rive said.

‘Existing Game’

“When you have a game-changing technology, those in the game don’t want to change,” Rive said. “They like the existing game, the sole source, cost-plus model.”

Rive said it now takes eight months for utilities in California to connect a SolarCity solar and energy storage system to the grid.

Tesla’s proposed battery factory could accelerate changes in the electric utility business as more customers start producing and storing their own power, Adam Jonas, a Morgan Stanley analyst, said in a Feb. 25 note. Musk is also chairman and the largest shareholder in SolarCity, which is now offering Tesla batteries as part of a system for its rooftop solar customers in parts of California and New England.

Other companies are starting to provide similar products as customers seek ways to cut the cord to the traditional U.S. monopoly power utility, which had sales totaling about $360 billion in 2012.

‘Storage Opportunity’

The company has said it’s exploring locations in Texas, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico for the 10 million-square-foot battery facility that would be key to expanding Tesla’s production from 35,000 cars a year to 500,000 or more.

“While the grid storage opportunity makes the Tesla story more interesting and is likely to further boost stock momentum, we do not see it as a financial game changer,” Barclays Plc analysts led by Brian Johnson, who rates Tesla the equivalent of a hold, said in a note to clients today.

Tesla dropped 0.2 percent to close at $252.54 in New York, the first day this week it hasn’t closed at a record high. The stock has jumped 68 percent this year. SolarCity rose 1.4 percent to a record $86.14.

Copyright 2014 Bloomberg
Title: The Wide Appeal of Batteries for the Renewable Energy Market
Post by: AGelbert on June 06, 2014, 10:26:36 pm

The Wide Appeal of Batteries for the Renewable Energy Market

Both the developing and the developed world have reasons to employ battery technology. Here’s why.  ;D

 Bruce Dorminey, Correspondent 
 June 05, 2014
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on July 10, 2014, 05:20:26 pm
Lithium or Vanadium: (  (  ( In Energy Storage, It’s No Contest

Bill Watkins, Imergy Power Systems
July 10, 2014

Agelbert NOTE: Mr. Watkins' book is Vanadium, so his bias shows. But his statements are, overall, accurate. The downsides of Lithium batteries are technological hurdles that will improve. I think there is ample room for both these technologies and several other battery electrolyte technologies as well.  ;D    (

Energy storage is poised to transform the electricity industry. In the U.S. alone, energy storage will grow 6x, from 120 megawatts to over 720 megawatts by 2020. Globally, it will bring power for the first time to over a billion people by letting them tap into micro-grids.   ( ( (

Lithium and vanadium have both been offered up as a basis for the storage economy. But which technology will win? Here are some facts about each – draw your own conclusions.

Cell Design


Lithium batteries store their energy in cells. Some are flat. Some are cylindrical, but you’re familiar with what they are: relatively small, self-contained devices that get hot. There are probably two in your phone and six in your notebook. But in a grid scale storage system, you need hundreds of thousands of them. It would be sort of like building an industrial-scale cold storage facility with a bunch of portable refrigerators. You can do it; it just won’t work well.


Vanadium flow batteries store their energy in tanks. The electrolyte — the fluid that transfers charges inside a battery — flows from one tank through the system back to the same tank. The tanks can be fish tank size or bigger than an above ground pool. As a result — and you will see this over and over again — it’s much easier to adapt flow batteries to industrial-scale applications without adding a lot of cost. You just make the tank bigger.



Bloomberg New Energy Finance says the average cost of a lithium-ion based storage system is $1,750 a kilowatt hour. The cost includes the cells, electronics, installation and balance of systems expenses. By 2020, Baird Research projects that Tesla Motors' planned gigafactory will be able to produce energy storage systems for $400 a kilowatt hour — all in — and sell them for $500 a kilowatt hour.


Some vanadium batteries already provide complete energy storage systems for $500 per kilowatt hour, a figure that will fall below $300 per kilowatt hour in less than a year. That is a full five years before the gigafactory hits its stride. By 2020, those energy storage systems will be produced for $150 a kwh.

Then there is scaling. If you want to double the size of a lithium system, you double the price: a ten kilowatt system would cost $17,500. With vanadium, you just increase the size of the tank, so the price per kilowatt hour goes down. Suddenly, the prices are going in different directions. Bigger is better.



Grid batteries have to last for decades. The average age of a substation transformer in the U.S. is 42 years. Lithium ion batteries have a finite life. Performance degrades over time and is impacted by heat, operating conditions and how deep, and how often, they have been discharged. Battery University notes that the capacity of lithium ion cells can drop to a 50 percent level after 1,200 to 1,500 discharges.


Vanadium-based flow energy storage systems can operate forever. The active ingredient is a low-cost, rechargeable electrolyte, which never wears out due to the type of chemical reaction involved. The electronics and software to manage the system can be easily upgraded like any computer. The last major component — the plastic tanks for holding the electrolyte — lasts for decades.

Applicable Markets


So with lithium you’ve got a small, expensive battery with a finite lifetime. To build a storage system for running demand response programs or a backup system that can provide four to six hours of power, you need thousands of cells. It’s like building a warehouse-scale facility with suitcases.

But it gets worse.  Lithium batteries also are subject to “thermal runaway” reactions, i.e. they can blow up.

Agelbert NOTE: "blowing up" is a low probability event in comparison with the explosion hazard of driving around with a tank a highly explosive liquid called GASOLINE. Of course a GIANT swimming pool sized Lithium battery would pose somewhat of a risk and would need safeguards.  The writer obviously prefers vanadium for many good reasons but the explosion thing is hyperbole.  ;)


Vanadium-based systems are made for industrial-size applications from a few kilowatts to several megawatts. And there is no danger of thermal reactions.

Manufacturing and Scalability


Manufacturing lithium ion cells isn’t easy. Lithium ion cell maker A123 Systems filed for bankruptcy less than three years after it held an IPO. 

“The lithium ion battery manufacturing space is not for the weak of heart,” says Sam Jaffe, senior research analyst with Navigant Research. “The electric vehicle market is growing slowly and the battery manufacturers are engaged in a Darwinian fight for survival.”

Tesla Motors’ Gigafactory would double the worldwide capacity to 50 Gigawatt hours worth of batteries and cost $5 billion dollars. It’s a big risk. It’s also worth noting that there is already significant unused lithium ion battery manufacturing capacity among vendors in Korea, China and Japan.


Setting up a Vanadium storage manufacturing facility is simple and very low cost — orders of magnitude less expensive than the proposed Gigafactory.  The production process is also simple, and ecologically safe. The electrolyte and other active components are combined as one process step, the enclosure, made of pipes, tanks and electronics is assembled as a second process step, and they are then assembled into battery packs.  As a result, total worldwide capacity can “flow” much easier: manufacturing capacity can be added incrementally.


Lithium batteries are 85 percent efficient over shallow discharges when new. Flow batteries are around 75 percent efficient. But if you operate lithium ion batteries in an environment above 40 Celsius, the charge rate (i.e. the time it takes to charge) drops by 25 percent and the lifetime cycles drop by 33 percent. Below minus 20 Celsius, the charge rate drops by 40 percent. Imergy’s Vanadium batteries aren’t impacted.

Environmental Impact


Lithium batteries for the most part aren’t recycled. Economically, it is just not worth it. The price of battery grade lithium hydroxide has more than tripled to $7,600 a ton.

Most lithium comes from mines and brine pit operations in Australia, Bolivia, Chile and Argentina. Talison Lithium, the largest producer in the world, extracts more than 350,000 tons of lithium ores out of a single mine a year.


Imergy Power Systems has come up with an innovative technique to extract vanadium for its storage systems from mine tailings, depleted oil wells and oil storage depots. To get our active ingredient, we clean up environmental hazards.
(  (

Agelbert NOTE:For the pro-fossil fuel terminally dense, the above means that BATTERIES + SOLAR PV = NIGHTIME SOLAR POWER (with much more energy available than there EVER WAS with fossil fuels - 16TW/year versus 23,000 TW/year  :o  potential from SOLAR ALONE! ( Of course said math challenged fossil fueler whiners will claim that the POOR efficiency factor of PV negates all that 23,000 potential TW/year figure.  ( You see, people like that never learned how do percentage calculations. That is, 16 is 0.0007% of 23,000. Uhh, PV is just a BIT MORE EFFICIENT than THAT!  (


I apologize to all those who can add and subtract for presenting the graphic below. It is placed there for logic and laws of thermodynamics challenged FOSSIL FUELERS that claim solar PV CANNOT provide energy at night!  ;D


And of course there are OTHER RENEWABLE ENERGY technologies, out there that will help at night...


Title: Tesla Breaks Ground for Its Gigafactory in Nevada
Post by: AGelbert on August 04, 2014, 10:20:33 pm
Tesla Breaks Ground for Its Gigafactory in Nevada
James Nash and Alan Ohnsman, Bloomberg
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 19, 2014, 10:19:02 pm
Grid Battery Storage: Four Reasons to Invest
The emerging battery storage market will present new opportunities for investors.
Richard Heap, A Word About Wind

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 29, 2014, 04:07:07 pm
From Ashes to Energy: $1 Billion Alevo Battery Factory Surges On the Scene (

Taking over an old cigarette factory in North Carolina, Alevo announces new battery technology and 3.5 million square feet of factory space to make its new GridBank batteries in.

 Jennifer Runyon, Chief Editor, 
 October 28, 2014  |  7 Comments  (at link)

New Hampshire --  Having worked in stealth mode for the past 10 years, German researchers and serial entrepreneur Jostein Eikeland have developed a new battery chemistry that they claim is non-combustible and highly efficient. The batteries, say Alevo, have at their core a new inorganic electrolyte that eliminates “both the risk of combustion and explosion and massively reduces the debilitating effects of charging cycles.”

According to the company Alevo has demonstrated in testing that its batteries can be charged up to 40,000 times with no signs of increase in internal resistance.  :o    ( This testing included over-charging followed by deep discharging. (

The technology will be manufactured into what the company calls a “GridBank,” which is a large container-sized 2-MW (1 MWh) utility scale battery that in conjunction with the company’s battery management system, which it calls Alevo Analytics, will work to make the grid more efficient and smooth out fluctuations in energy caused by intermittent renewables like wind power and solar PV.  “What this means in practice is lower costs to the utilities, smaller bills for the consumer and a reduction in greenhouse gases per megawatt that will help cost-effective coal-fired generation achieve the EPA Clean Power limits,” said Eikeland in a statement.

GridBanks will be manufactured in Concord, North Carolina in a former Phillip-Morris cigarette factory, which is opening today. The manufacturing plant will create 2,500 jobs at the outset and will employ as many as 6,000 people when (and if) it reaches peak production capacity. Alevo says that the factory will be able to produce up to 480 GridBanks in the first year of production, set to begin in 2015. The company said it will be deploying and commissioning production lines that will produce 40 GridBanks per month by July 2015.

The manufacturing plant sits on 2,023 acres, 1,500 of which is green field, which along with Duke Energy’s 38-MW substation on the property mean that the existing access to natural gas, water, sewer and fiber all exceed Alevo’s manufacturing requirements.

Alevo’s heritage in battery technology dates back to 2004. The past decade has seen continued investment in the core battery technology and in software development of the Alevo Analytics Suite. The investment in the combined research and development, together with the acquisition and fit-out of the manufacturing supply chain, represents a start-up investment of over $1 billion that has been met through private investments and equity funds.

The company is also announcing that it has two national level contracts. Alevo and China-ZK, a 51 percent private funded body that coordinates energy infrastructure in China, have signed a strategic agreement to promote and commercialize Alevo’s technology products and services in China. Meanwhile, in Turkey, Alevo has signed a joint venture distribution partnership deal with TSG and RBM.

Today, grid frequency is maintained through fossil fuel plants and demand reduction programs, explains the company. Frequency regulation through energy storage enables a higher efficiency in the grid, as over produced electricity can be stored and then discharged when the frequency is dropping. Alevo claims that its technology will reduce 30 percent of the energy “waste” on the grid. ( will continue to offer updates on Alevo and its new technology in the coming months.

Lead image: Aerial view of Alevo's Concord, NC manufacturing facility. Credit: Alevo. (at link)

Title: What is Gridbank? It's a mortal threat to fossil fuel peak load gas plants!
Post by: AGelbert on October 29, 2014, 08:59:11 pm
What is a gridbank?


GridBanks are energy reservoirs that store and deliver grid-scale electricity on demand.

•Stores electricity when too much is produced (

•Delivers electricity when too little is produced  (

•Balances the transmission so the voltage and frequency are constant – fluctuation creates costly and damaging disturbances (

•Allows fossil fuel power-plants to operate more efficiently – reducing pollution and cost (

•Enables smooth renewables integration  (


Gridbank is:

THE SOLUTION — Deployment of GridBanks tied to the electric grid across the globe solves these myriad challenges. GridBanks will cut the real cost of electricity from generation to transmission and delivery, while gradually transitioning supply from fossil fuel to renewables. (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 29, 2014, 09:16:25 pm

At the center of the GridBank is the Alevo Battery.

ABT… Safe. Robust. Reliable.

Alevo Battery Technology brings the first inorganic lithium battery to the commercial marketplace, bringing unprecedented attributes to the energy storage market. Due to its inorganic nature, the battery is non-flammable (Safety) and creates minimal internal resistance (Long Life).

•Alevo batteries are non-flammable and non-combustible
•CO UN Certification


•High discharge power rate and high pulse current conducive to electric grid applications
•Fully dischargeable, the only lithium battery that offers 100% Depth of Discharge (DOD)  :o  ;D
•Highly durable – can tolerate extreme temperature swings
•No calendric aging and can be stored in a complete discharged state  ;D

•Extreme long life cycle
Constant internal resistance  ;D over cycle life
Constant power  ;D over cycle life

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 30, 2014, 04:03:40 pm
Alevo Planning Battery Plant in Former Cigarette Factory

By Ehren Goossens  Oct 27, 2014 6:28 PM ET     

Alevo Group SA, a Swiss startup, is planning a battery factory to produce energy-storage systems for utilities to manage intermittent power supplies from renewable sources such as wind and sunlight.

The company paid $68.5 million for a former cigarette factory in Concord, North Carolina and expects to begin production next year, according to a statement today. It will initially make about 40 GridBank systems a month, shipping containers packed with lithium-ion batteries that can hold about 2 megawatts. (

The growing use of renewable energy   ;D will become a challenge for utilities that must maintain a constant flow of electricity. That will create demand for storage technologies that can help balance supply and demand, said Jostein Eikeland, Martigny, Switzerland-based Alevo’s chairman  (, chief executive officer and largest shareholder.

“We saw there was an opening in the market and saw the opportunity to be a shock absorber for the grid,” he said in an interview.

The 3.5 million square-foot (325,000 square-meter) former Philip Morris International Inc. factory will employ about 500 people in its first year, eventually expanding to 6,000 workers, he said.

Alevo’s 40-foot GridBank systems can be charged in about 30 minutes and the batteries can be charged and discharged more than 40,000 times, Eikeland said. Alevo is working with China-ZK International Energy Investment Co. to sell its systems in China and to build a manufacturing plant there. The company has similar sales and leasing agreements with companies in Turkey.

Alevo is one of several companies   ;D seeking to establish a foothold in energy-storage. The electric car manufacturer Tesla Motors Inc. is building a $5 billion plant in Nevada with Panasonic Corp. The facility, which has been called the Gigafactory will produce batteries for its vehicles.

To contact the reporter on this story: Ehren Goossens in New York at

To contact the editors responsible for this story: Reed Landberg at Will Wade, Steven Frank


Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 30, 2014, 04:28:22 pm
Stealthy Norwegian entrepreneur aims to revolutionize U.S. energy storage  (

By Nichola Groom

Mon Oct 27, 2014 5:21pm EDT  Jostein Eikeland, a Norwegian entrepreneur with a mixed record of success, is hoping to jolt the world of energy storage.

On Tuesday, Eikeland's latest venture, Alevo, will unveil a battery that he says will last longer and ultimately cost far less than rival technologies.
The technology, which is meant to store excess electricity generated by power plants, has been developed by Eikeland in secret for a decade.

"We've been very stealth," Eikeland said in a telephone interview. "We didn't know if we were going to succeed."

Martigny, Switzerland-based Alevo Group is gearing up to start manufacturing batteries next year at a massive former cigarette plant near Charlotte, North Carolina, that it says will employ 2,500 people within three years.

Eikeland, 46, said Alevo, named for the inventor of the battery, Alessandro Volta, has $1 billion from anonymous Swiss investors and has taken no state funding or incentives.

Alternately brash and self-deprecating, Eikeland did not shy away from discussing his up-and-down past. He founded software company

TeleComputing Inc during the dot-com boom, helped take it public on the Oslo stock exchange, then left in 2002 after the tech bubble burst.
He later invested heavily in and took the helm of Sweden-based auto parts manufacturer, TMG International, which went bankrupt in 2008. Broke, he was forced to sell his lavish homes to pay his taxes, according to media reports that were confirmed by representatives for Alevo.

After TMG, Eikeland spent a few years investing in software and battery technologies, many of which he admits failed.

"I know how hard it is to lose eight of your 10 fingers," he said. "I wish I had somebody else to blame."  8)


Claims of technological breakthroughs from unfamiliar companies are common in the world of green technology. Many startups fizzle out before they achieve mass production. Among the recent high-profile flameouts: battery maker A123 and solar panel maker Solyndra.

"One billion dollars is a colossal amount of capital raised for any clean-tech company," said Raymond James analyst Pavel Molchanov, who said he is not familiar with Alevo. "It doesn't mean it's going to be a smashing success."

Typically in high-tech manufacturing, companies use pilot projects to prove their technology to investors and potential customers before ramping up.

That's not how Eikeland is proceeding.

"Building as big as we did, it might seem a little bit risky," said Eikeland, who described himself as "a controversial guy."  (

Producing on a mass scale will make Alevo's technology cost- effective from the start, Eikeland said. The high cost of grid storage has prevented it from being deployed more widely.

Eikeland plans to deliver 200 megawatts of batteries - roughly enough to power 100,000 homes - into the U.S. market next year and is in talks with big utilities, which he hopes will become customers.

Alevo's approach stands in stark contrast to the public announcement last month of Tesla Motors Inc's planned $5 billion factory in Nevada, which will make batteries for electric cars. Tesla says its plant will employ 6,500 people by 2020. It will receive more than $1 billion of state incentives.

"Building a $1 billion facility in stealth mode is definitely unusual," said Dan Reicher, executive director of the Steyer-Taylor Center for Energy Policy and Finance at Stanford University. Reicher, a former green technology investor, said he was not familiar with Alevo or its technology.

State and county officials in North Carolina confirmed that Alevo has not sought any business incentives.


The company has created what it calls GridBanks, which are shipping containers full of thousands of battery cells. Each container can deliver 2 megawatts of power, enough to power up to 1,300 homes for an hour.

The batteries use lithium iron phosphate and graphite as active materials and an inorganic electrolyte - what Eikeland called the company's "secret sauce" - that extends longevity and reduces the risk of burning. They can be charged and discharged over 40,000 times, the company said.

That is about four times as much as rival batteries,   :o   ;D said Sam Wilkinson, who follows energy storage for IHS Technology. Wilkinson, who said he was briefed by Alevo on its plans, said that if the batteries work as promised they will constitute a technological leap.

Grid storage has become critical as more renewables are introduced into the world’s power supply. For instance, batteries can store power generated during windy nights to use during the day when the wind may not be blowing, or can extend solar power into the hours after the sun goes down.

The industry is expected to grow to $19 billion by 2017 from just $200 million in 2012, according to research firm IHS CERA.

Eikeland holds several patents in the United States related to battery technology. The company will compete with established manufacturers like Samsung and France's Saft as well as a handful of privately held startups like Enervault and Primus Power.

(Additional reporting by Gwladys Fouche in Oslo; Editing by Eric Effron and Douglas Royalty)

Agelbert Comment: Alevo knows EXACTLY what it is doing. Had they been open about the battery breakthrough, the fossil fuel fascists would have brought the bought and paid for Corrupt Court System in to INVENT all sorts of "environmental hazard" reasons to kneecap the factory. Yeah, they will try that now anyway but Alevo has done its HOMEWORK with the state officials that want jobs. The fossil fuelers are NOT going to burn THIS factory down by hook or by crook!  8)  ;D

Alevo, Go Bankrupt the Fossil Fuelers! ( (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on March 13, 2015, 06:56:32 pm
Battery Hackers Are Building the Future in the Garage  ;D

A day trader cannibalized a Tesla to go off the grid. That's the spirit igniting a revolution in solar energy.  (

 Matthew Campbell, Tim Loh and Mark Chediak, Bloomberg 
 March 12, 2015  |  11 Comments (

A. G. Gelbert   
 March 13, 2015 

Excellent and informative comments. Thank you all.

Thomas M knows the score. But people are not as easily beguiled by the Agnotology that has been par for the corrupt and mendacious course of ethics challenged corporations in general (and dirty energy special interests in particular) for well over a century.

We get it now. And we are spreading the word. (

I attended a seminar at the annual meeting of the AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) in San Francisco titled: The Sociopolitical Manufacturing of Scientific Ignorance: Agnotology, organized by Jonathan Coopersmith of Texas A&M University.

The first presentation was a recapitulation of the familiar shenanigans of the tobacco industry plus an account of a creditable science magazine named “Science Fortnightly” that was published for several years apparently motivated entirely to promote Kent Cigarettes. Also I had not heard before that the first Kent filters contained asbestos.

So there were quite a few fronts for the tobacco agnotologists, most notably the George Marshall Institute, very active in downplaying second hand smoke, and a covey of “charitable” foundations providing grants for such fronts.

A useful list of these organizations includes the following:

 The American Enterprise Institute $45,000,000 dispersed 1985-2006

 The Carthage Foundation, $68,000,000 dispersed 1985-2003

 The Cato Institute, operating budget $22,000,000 in 2007

 The Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation disperses $28,000,000 annually; it is one of the . . Koch family foundations along with the Charles G. Koch and the David H. Koch Foundations. . Collectively they have contributed $196,000,000, mostly to think tanks, from 1980 to 2009.

 The Earhart Foundation $95,000,000 in assets (major contributor to George Marshall Institute)

 The George Marshall Institute dispersed $5,500,000 1985- 2001

 The John M. Olin Foundation existed 1953-2005 & dispensrd $370,000,000 to think tanks

 The Linde and Harry Bradley Foundation, $290,000,000 in assets

 The Mercatus Center received $11,874,500 1977-2009 from Koch family foundations

 The Sarah Saife Foundation, $235,000,000 dispersed 1985-2003

 The W. H. Bradley Foundation $13,000,000 in assets

Many have morphed into coveys of expert spin doctors practicing agnotology.

Examples of the sorts of projects funded:

1) A commission to study the accuracy of teaching materials used for teaching "environmental science";

2) Senior scientist program to foster "sound science" in policy debate.

It appears that these projects really exist to rebut an established consensus for the benefit of sponsoring clients.

The AAAS presenters emphasized many names recurring as participants in these organizations. The presenters had such lists—useful in evaluating the motives of any new organization not yet known to be a front for agnotology. (

What's does Agnotology have to do with suppression of R&D to multiply the efficiency while lowering the cost of batteries and Renewable Energy?

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on March 27, 2015, 02:10:17 pm
 ( MORE TOXIC FUMES when you run your Renewable Energy Powered  emergency generator! ( 

Portable renewable energy start-up launches in Colorado

March 18, 2015
Source: Boulder Power Technologies

Boulder Power Technologies, a provider of portable renewable power products, today launched as a rising startup in the fast-growing alternative energy market. The company's focus is bringing innovative, Lithium Ion-based technology to organizations looking for clean, quiet and versatile energy to power everything from construction tools and outdoor sound and lighting systems to home appliances.  (  The company's first product, the PowerTap 2000, is available in limited quantities within the local Colorado market.

"Boulder Power Technologies is committed to developing alternative power solutions that are portable, renewable and 100-percent clean for people and organizations looking for a better energy option than gas-powered generators," said Rod Ruble, Chief Commercial Officer of Boulder Power Technologies. "The pace of innovation in battery-powered solutions continues to increase as reliability and charge duration times continue to improve, and the PowerTap 2000 represents a new option that extends this technology into the Colorado market."

The PowerTap 2000 utilizes cutting-edge Lithium Ion battery technology to deliver portable power where and when needed, with "zero-noise/zero-emissions" and without the fumes and cost of gasoline. Its "one on-switch" makes it easy to use for anyone, and it can be wheeled into place and utilized for just pennies-per-use. It provides up to 6000 watts of power (2000 watts continuously) for applications ranging from construction sites and mobile businesses to events and facility support.

 The unit is easily re-charged through a standard household electrical outlet, and a full charge takes only 90 minutes. It provides up to 12 hours of uninterrupted power for power tools, water sump pumps, lighting and sound systems, sporting equipment and more. Designed and manufactured in the United States, it offers versatile mobile power for both indoor and outdoor uses, and its rugged construction is backed by a five-year warranty.

Boulder Power Technologies is dedicated to designing and manufacturing products that are cleaner, lower-cost and superior to gas-powered products. It is one of the first companies to bring renewable and alternative power sources to the mass-mid-market through advancements in Lithium Ion battery technology. Introduced in 1991, this technology is cleaner, safer and more reliable than any other battery technology, leading to its adoption across both industrial and consumer industries – from mobile phones to electric cars.   (

Boulder Power Technologies plans to expand its local sales efforts to a national footprint sometime in the second quarter of this year. Orders can be placed via its website. (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on April 04, 2015, 09:04:24 pm
Tesla's residential battery system leaked, here's everything we know  (
 By Shawn Knight on April 1, 2015, 10:07 PM

Tesla CEO Elon Musk earlier this week teased a new product line set to debut on April 30. All signs suggest that product will be the home battery system the entrepreneur spoke about during an earnings call earlier this year.

For those needing a bit more convincing, a recent note from Global Equities Research analyst Trip Chowdhry should do the trick.

In it, he claims to know two people that are currently testing Tesla’s residential battery system. One of the two testers was willing to provide a wealth of information on the system (behind the shadow of anonymity, of course). Here’s everything we know from the person that spilled the beans.

There are around 230 homes in California currently testing Tesla's stationary battery as well as another 100 or so outside of the Golden State. The source said he had been using the system for about a year and a half now  :o and that it is installed in his garage.


As for installation, the battery must be installed at least 1.5 feet above the ground and needs to have at least one foot of open space on all sides. The battery doesn’t make any sound, doesn’t require any maintenance and doesn’t leak (good to know).

The unit itself measures about three feet tall and is around 2.5 feet wide. Aesthetically, it “looks good,” the source said.

During installation, he was offered a 10WKH and 15WKH option; he chose the smaller of the two. There’s also an inverter, we’re told.

While final pricing likely hasn’t been decided yet, the customer in question selected a plan in which he paid $1,500 up front and $15 per month over a period of 10 years. After that, the installer will take the system back. Chowdhry suggests the battery could be priced at $13,000 with a 50 percent rebate from PG&E Corporation.

Chowdhry said his source told him the system can be controlled from his iPhone as well as via a web application. His unit is set up to charge from solar panels and once the battery is full, excess energy can be sold back to the grid for a rebate on his electric bill.

Additionally, the user charges the batteries at night when electricity sells for just $0.11 then sells it back to the grid at 3:00 p.m. for $0.43. By doing this, the source said he makes about $10 to $12 per month.  ;D The unit can optionally be charged using a generator, useful during extended power outages due to storms, etc.

Unfortunately, the source didn’t provide any information as to exactly how he uses the battery system outside of selling energy back to the grid.

Renewable energy= (                                ( Fuelers
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on April 16, 2015, 09:41:50 pm

Cost of Batteries for Electric Vehicles Falling More Rapidly than Projected

Posted April 13, 2015

Keywords: Sustainability, batteries, electric vehicles (evs), Full Spectrum, lithium ion

 Full Spectrum: Energy Analysis and Commentary with Jesse Jenkins

Summary: The cost of battery packs for electric vehicles has fallen more rapidly than projected, with market leading firms in 2014 producing batteries at ~$300 per kilowatt-hour of storage capacity, on par with market projections for 2020.

Electric vehicle (EV) battery costs have fallen more rapidly than many projections, according to a new survey of battery costs published in Nature Climate Change. Researchers from the Stockholm Environment Institute scoured peer-reviewed journals, consultancy reports, and news items to construct an original data set of EV battery pack cost estimates from 2007 to 2014.

Average battery pack costs have fallen 14 percent per year across the industry
, which has seen sales volumes double annually in recent years. EV battery packs now cost $410 per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of storage capacity on average (with a 95 percent confidence interval ranging from $250–670 per kWh).

The cost of batteries produced by market leading firms, such as Renault-Nissan and Tesla Motors, however, have fallen further ( , to an average of $300 per kWh, according to the study.

These estimates are on the order of two to four times lower than many recent peer-reviewed papers have suggested and already equal to the average cost projected for 2020 in a variety of papers. Costs for market leaders have declined at an average of 8 percent per year, the study estimates.

At $300 per kWh, electric vehicles can begin to compete economically with traditional petroleum-fueled internal combustion engines when gasoline costs $3-5 per gallon (€0.73-1.22 per liter), according to separate analyses from global consulting firm McKinsey and the International Energy Agency. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has set a target of $150 per kWh for battery electric vehicles to become broadly competitive and see widespread market adoption.

In the near-term, the researchers believe economies of scale, improvements in cell manufacturing and learning-by-doing in pack integration, rather than advancements in cell chemistry or other R&D breakthroughs, will help manufacturers continue to produce cheaper batteries.

EV battery sales volumes are current doubling annually and car manufacturers are partnering with battery makers to invest in larger production facilities and cut costs. Renault-Nissan is working with LG to produce enough batteries for 1.5 million electric vehicles per year by 2016 while Tesla Motors and Panasonic are building a “Gigafactory” in Nevada that will produce 500,000 packs for EVs along with additional batteries for stationary energy storage, for a total of 50 million kWh per year of battery production. Tesla and Panasonic are targeting a further 30 percent decline in battery pack costs by 2017, which would require a 7 percent annual decline in costs, consistent with a continuation of recent rates for market leading firms.

The study’s authors conclude that economies of scale are likely to drive down battery costs to $200 per kWh in the near future. Further cell chemistry improvements may be necessary to hit the $150 per kWh target envisioned by the U.S. DOE. At those prices, electric vehicles may soon break out of niche markets and achieve much wider-scale adoption. ( 

Publication: Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles,” Nature Climate Change, Vol. 5 (April, 2015): 329–332.

Björn Nykvist is a Research Fellow and Måns Nilsson is Deputy Director and Research Director at the Stockholm Environment Institute.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 01, 2015, 06:05:31 pm
  (  Tesla Unveils Batteries for Homes, Businesses, Utilities  ( 

 Dana Hull, Mark Chediak and Louise Downing, Bloomberg 
 May 01, 2015 

SAN FRANCISCO -- Tesla Motors Inc. Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk unveiled a suite of batteries to store electricity for homes, businesses and utilities, saying a greener power grid furthers the company’s mission to provide pollution-free energy.

“Our goal here is to fundamentally change the way the world uses energy,”   (
Musk said at an event Thursday at the company’s design studio in Hawthorne, California.
“We’re talking at the terawatt scale. The goal is complete transformation of the entire energy infrastructure of the world.”
The announcement, after weeks of anticipation, marks Tesla’s expansion beyond electric cars. As homes, businesses and utilities use more renewable energy generated by sunshine and wind, the need to provide reliable power grows. Batteries can be used to store electricity during peak production and dispense it later, when the sun isn’t shining or the wind isn’t blowing. The company’s shares rose 2.6 percent to $232 at 7:11 a.m. New York time before regular trading.

Tesla’s home battery, named “Powerwall,” is a rechargeable lithium-ion battery that mounts on the wall and comes in 7 kilowatt-hour or 10 kilowatt-hour versions, the company said in a statement. Deliveries will begin in late summer at prices starting from $3,000, Tesla said.

The battery is designed to enable so-called “load-shifting” by charging during times when electricity prices are lower due to less demand, and discharging when demand and prices are high. It can also store solar power generated during daytime and release it at night, and serve as backup during outages, according to Tesla. The average American home consumes about 30 kilowatt-hours of energy a day, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.

Musk said the home batteries will come in different colors and look like “a beautiful sculpture on the wall.”

Utility Industry

In the utility industry, storage is finally coming of age. In Tesla’s home state of California, a groundbreaking energy storage mandate requires PG&E Corp., Edison International’s Southern California Edison and Sempra Energy’s San Diego Gas & Electric to collectively buy 1.3 gigawatts of energy storage capacity by the end of 2020. New York is also turning to storage to relieve congestion on transmission lines and plans for the potential retirement of aging power plants.

The power industry has struggled to come up with a cost- effective storage solution, an issue that has become more pressing as growing amounts of solar and wind are integrated into the grid.

“Energy storage can be a really large ecosystem,”
Chris Shelton, vice president at AES Corp., an Arlington, Virginia- based power producer and utility owner, said in an interview after Musk’s announcement. “It helps to have another voice, and a prominent voice, making the case.”

More ‘Gigafactories’


Tesla’s utility-scale battery will consist of 100 kilowatt-hour blocks that can be grouped to a scale of 500 kilowatt-hours to more than 10 megawatt-hours.

Palo Alto, California-based Tesla is making a bet that its $5 billion “gigafactory” under construction near Reno, Nevada, will enable the mass production needed to drive down battery costs for both cars and energy-storage products that are already serving as a revenue stream for the company. More such factories will be needed to help make the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, Musk said.

Tesla, whose batteries are already supplying large customers like Wal-Mart Stores Inc., Cargill Inc., and Jackson Family Wines, has formed partnerships with companies including Green Mountain Power (  to sell its home batteries, it said. The company is also teaming up with Southern California Edison to install batteries for utilities, while Inc. and Target Corp. will pilot use of Tesla’s batteries for businesses.

SolarCity Customers First in Line

Elon Musk will make the device available to SolarCity Inc. customers seeking backup supply when the grid goes down.

The battery “replaces noisy, dirty fossil-fuel generators with zero-emission storage technology,”
SolarCity said Thursday in a statement. SolarCity began taking orders for the Tesla batteries on Friday and expects to begin installing them in October.

Copyright 2015 Bloomberg

Agelbert NOTE:
The final NAIL in the COFFIN of the BALONEY that fossil fuels are more "reliable" than Renewable Energy is HERE.  (  (   (

Renewable energy= (                                ( Fuelers

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 02, 2015, 08:41:45 pm

GMP to sell new Tesla home storage batteries

John Herrick May. 1 2015, 6:47 pm 6 Comments

Tesla’s Powerwall. Courtesy of Tesla (at link).

Vermont’s largest electric utility announced Friday it is partnering with Tesla Motors Inc. to sell batteries that store solar electricity for residential use.

Green Mountain Power will begin offering Tesla’s Powerwall home battery units to customers this fall in Rutland. The batteries store excess power coming from the grid or net-metered renewable energy generation projects to then be used during an outage or when wind and solar energy is not available. (

The batteries can also be recharged at night when Vermont’s utilities pay less for power, and supply power when prices are high during peak demand, a process known as “load shifting.” GMP says it will encourage customers draw electricity from the batteries during peak demand to reduce transmission and capacity costs, which are passed onto customers. The batteries can also be use to power homes during outages.

“This is a great example of how Vermont is leading the way with real-world solutions to a more sustainable future,” GMP President and CEO Mary Powell said. “We want to create a new definition of resiliency, where we move away from the 100-year-old grid system to a new electric system where energy is generated and used closer to home.” ( 

The Powerwall is a rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack that is mounted on a wall to harness excess electricity. Tesla sells a 10 killowatt-hour for version $3,500 or a 7 kWh version for $3,000. The batteries are warrantied to last 10 years. Tesla says it will recycle the batteries.

The 7 kWh unit can power essential services in a home such as the lights, furnace and refrigerator for about six hours during an outages, according to Kristin Carlson, a GMP spokeswoman.

She said 80 percent to 90 percent of the utility’s outages last two hours or less.

GMP will receive its first Powerwalls in October. It will distribute 400 to customers in Rutland and later statewide. GMP will offer product incentives combined with on-bill financing, the company says.

Carlson said the company aims to charge customers between $3,500 to $4,500 for the battery, an AC-DC inverter and installation. She said the company can subsidize the batteries because they could reduce peak power costs to the utility.

After the 10-year life of the battery, Tesla will pick up the battery from the customer and recycle it, Carlson said.   ( 

Tesla announced its home storage system Thursday in California.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 03, 2015, 07:21:40 pm
Of course the recycling promise completely depends on the continuation of Tesla Motors as a going concern, and there is exactly one company in the US (maybe in the world, not sure) that recycles LI-Ion batteries. (Toxco) (

I hope they do keep going, as someone who is on his second car with batteries (first with LI-Ion since the Prius has NiMH's) but I'm not counting on it. Ten years is a long promise. I still think Edison cells make better sense for home power. The power utilities should subsidize those.

When lithium-ion batteries reach a recycling plant, there are two ways to pulverize them. If they are completely without a charge, they're simply shredded so that the metal components, like copper and steel, can be easily sorted out. If the batteries could still possibly have a charge, though, they're frozen in liquid nitrogen and smashed to frozen bits (cool!). The liquid nitrogen is so cold, the batteries can't react, so the smashing is safe. And probably fun. Then the metals are separated out for reuse.

I think you are right in regard to PUBLIC ACCESS battery technology. But the importance of this move by Tesla goes far beyond the limits of battery technology BECAUSE it is a paradigm shift in thinking about energy that the "dirty energy is the only reliable energy" people DO NOT WANT us to think about.

The assumption most people HERE started out with when I began posting about renewable energy 3 years ago was that NO WAY, JOSE for renewable energy's "drop in the bucket".

Look how things have changed in just 3 YEARS. It's over for dirty energy, Eddie. THAT is the subtext. THAT s what I am celebrating. THAT is what relegates all the "math doers" claiming this, that and the other about the "viability" of fossil fuels SQUARELY to the fringe whacko group that THEY had previously brainwashed MOST PEOPLE HERE into believing was applicable to the Renewable Energy crowd.  :icon_mrgreen:

The unleashing in the next ten years of just a tiny portion of all the suppressed (by the fossil fuel government for nearly a century) renewable energy technologies, of which battery technology is a small segment, is now happening.

The Renewable Energy Revolution will not be stopped this time, UNLESS we have a global thermonuclear war. So, yeah, the fossil fuelers have a genuine MOTIVE for wanting ALL OUT WAR. Never mind that it will hasten our extinction. Those people have been nuts from the start. I have yet to convince most people here of that, as well. But nevertheless, people are starting to connect the war loving, suicidal psychopath "dots" to the fossil fuel government/lobby MO. I hope it's not to late to stop those crazies.

The "DIRTY ENERGY IS THE ONLY RELIABLE ENERGY" folks will soon be singing "I'm on the outside looking in." (        (

There are ALL SORTS OF NOVEL ideas popping up out there!       (
 Consider your place in Texas. Consider that you DO HAVE the solar power and money to buy umpteen panels that YOU KNOW will last 25 years PLUS with almost ZERO maintenance.  :emthup:

Suppose you just use the bulk of them to pump water into a huge tank. THAT TANK IS A BATTERY! That battery has INFINITE "charge" cycles, Eddie. That BATTERY NEVER NEEDS TO BE "recycled"!

And how do you get juice from that "battery" at EXACTLY the right voltage and amperage?  (


Here's a tiny one. It's very quiet and certainly won't power most of your needs but it is a NO BRAINER that this technology is SIMPLE and is EASILY scaled up to get your 15KW or so household demand 24/7 come hell AND high water. (

And I don't need to tell YOU, in dry Texas, what ELSE you could do with access to a LOT of stored water, do I?   ( ( (

And, by the way, if large water towers are not your cup of tea, a GIANT water tank can be placed IN THE GROUND (out of sight and out of sabotage access by vandals ;D) with a gravity powered weight pushing DOWN on the water to give you water pressure for your generator. This is a build and forget thing with zero maintenance, for all practical purposes.

Many systems, up to the gigawatt generating level of underground giant cylindrical weights in multiple cylindrical tanks have been proposed. NO ADDED WATER is necessary after initial fill up. You just raise the weight when you have excess solar power, PERIOD. Of course, the fluid does not have to be water, but I think water is the best to protect the environment in the case of minor leaks.

Think BIG, Eddie. It ain't over yet!
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 04, 2015, 12:58:33 pm
SunEdison Recruits Imergy Flow Batteries for Microgrid Rural Electrification Initiative


After a pledge to power more than 20 million people in rural India, SunEdison has partnered with Imergy to install hundreds of solar-powered minigrid systems.

 Meg Cichon, Associate Editor, 
 March 25, 2015  |  8 Comments 

Massachusetts, USA -- Earlier this year, SunEdison announced a goal to bring power to 20 million people in rural India by 2020. To forward this mission, it announced today that it will use more than 1,000 flow batteries from Imergy Power Systems for its solar-powered minigrid projects.


The solar-powered minigrids are anchored to telecom towers near remote villages with batteries typically ranging from 30 to 120 kWh. The system provides 24/7 power for the tower, while also powering surrounding villages. Instead of purchasing expensive kerosense or simply living in darkness, villagers are able to charge their devices or wire lighting to the village itself. According to Imergy CEO Bill Watkins, about 5,000 villages fit this telecom model.

Imergy is no stranger to off-grid applications. It’s storage technology has already been installed in both India and several parts of Africa. While in the U.S., the Navy is currently testing its applications in a smart microgrid project.


Its technology uses recycled vanadium from environmental waste, which is stored in tanks and circulated during charge and discharge cycles.  Since the chemicals are stored in separate tanks, the system can be scaled up or down fairly easily. And while flow batteries have a shorter response time than other battery technologies, they are ideal for off-grid applications, according to Tim Hennessy, Imergy President and COO.

“We can scale energy. If you’re looking to store it for 24 hours, you can’t do it with other batteries or costs would become exorbitant,” said Hennessey. “There is no software to manage, a deep charge lasts all day long, and it can withstand harsh environments.”

Back in December 2013, Imergy told REW that its costs were on track to reach $300/kWh by 2015. Hennessey said that they are still on track for that number to become a reality, but emphasized that the industry needs to look at the levelized cost of energy to understand true costs.

“Everyone talks about costs, but the fact is that [vanadium flow batteries] will last 20 years on energy storage cycle, and vanadium itself never wears out. While lithium-ion batteries may be ‘cheaper,’ they have a much shorter lifespan and are less scalable,” said Hennessey. “We are actually cheaper than other technologies over the lifetime of a battery.”

But while everyone is interested in the technology and economics, Watkins and Hennessey want to emphasize the importance of these rural electrification projects.

Hennessey explained what he called the “battle of the last mile.” When industry cannot justify extending transmission an additional five miles, many villages are left in the dark. However, when the villages get off-grid power, businesses start to crop up and demand increases, which then eventually justifies transmission investment. But since India’s transmission system is so unreliable, these villages are now relying on renewable energy systems, which are creating huge economical growth.

“The big picture here is the fact that so many people in this world don't have electricity. When we enter these villages, it gets very emotional — most of them has never seen electricity in their lives,” Imergy's CEO Bill Watkins. “Yes, of course we want to make money for investors, but this is a big deal…This is a way to reach these people and have them be a part of the world — we can’t even fathom the impact.”
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 04, 2015, 06:27:45 pm
Tesla Energy: Will the Markets for Solar and Storage Include Everyone in Need? (

 Lewis Milford 
 May 04, 2015  |  2 Comments 

Elon Musk’s Tesla Energy announcement to sell an affordable, reliable battery system for solar energy storage in homes and businesses is more important than all the hyped press even suggests. But as extraordinary as the news is about how this technology will impact our energy future, it leaves out some important issues still to be sorted out.

At the top of the list is how these technology advances will benefit people other than high-income homeowners and businesses who are likely to be the first adopters of the product — how to make these technologies available to the low- and middle-income people who also need resilient power.

The news of Tesla opening up a new energy battery division, called Tesla Energy, has captured the headlines and the imagination. In a presentation reminiscent of Steve Jobs before an adoring crowd, Musk gave an entertaining and direct talk about the need for solar and battery storage to replace fossil fuels and address climate change and to capture and store electric power that can make homes and businesses more resilient and independent from the power grid. It was an impressive show.

The product specifications are even more impressive. For a cutting-edge and innovative product, the cost is low for a home system, $3,500, with an inverter and installation adding to that cost. That system will allow a home or business to island, to go grid independent in case of a power outage. It will also enable customers to reduce electric bills, especially very high demand charges that can represent more than half of typical commercial electric bill.

The announcement is part of a wave of good news about how solar plus battery systems can reinvent the power system, reduce pollution, and realign the relationship between electric utilities and their customers.

But what is missing from this news is how new battery storage technology can improve public safety — in virtually all buildings that protect the public like fire and police stations, schools and hospitals; and how this technology can benefit the people who need access to low-cost and resilient power the most — the underprivileged and largely forgotten poor, many who already suffer high electric bills in places like affordable housing and assisted living facilities. We need to ensure that the larger public and the most vulnerable can get these technology benefits along with high-end homeowners and businesses.

Social equity is often a challenge during these new technology transitions — the need to ensure that the arc of these new and cleaner solar+storage technology markets benefits the general public rather than only private commercial customers and the affluent.

We need to direct these technologies to benefit all sectors of society — not as an afterthought, but from the outset, as a matter of foundational market and policy design. That has not been the case with clean energy markets — the poor have usually been left behind the technology curve.

As these energy storage technologies become available, we need to make sure they are deployed to provide resilient power to communities, to make sure that emergency services and public infrastructure can benefit from reliable and affordable solar plus storage technologies. Hospitals, schools, water treatment plants, fire stations, elderly housing complexes, airports, communications and transportation systems could all benefit from these technologies. They all need reliable and affordable electric power; they all need to function when the grid goes down.

The good news is that Tesla seems driven to serve both private enterprise and public benefits. Musk is a brilliant energy innovator with a desire to solve large societal problems like climate change. He is keeping his technology patents open. That is to be commended.

What is also needed now is a commitment to ensure that new energy storage markets also include the public sector — to extend these economic and environmental benefits to the people most in need now, and not have these benefits trickle down years later, after the technologies have become mainstream.

The conversation about how to make that happen is an important one that companies like Tesla need to have.


May 4, 2015 

Where has your voice for "social equity" been for the past decade or so while the costs of fossil-fuel energy doubled for everyone, placing the greatest burden on the people most in need? Solar and wind power - and technology to store solar and wind energy - promise strong elements of price stability and predictability for everyone, including the economically disadvantaged. Fossil fuel energy and its inherent price volatility, unpredictability and massive subsidies are far more serious problems for the poor than anything that could be envisioned for modern clean energy technology.


 A. G. Gelbert   
 May 4, 2015 

Of course Renewable Energy should be made available to everyone. This is where the insidious nature of town ordinances comes in. NOBODY seems to want to ADMIT that the infrastructure, at present, is tailored to promote the use of fossil fuels in homes and businesses and make it rather challenging, to put it mildly, to install Renewable Energy.

No town ordinance will stop you from doubling the size of your fossil fuel burning furnace or installing a giant electricity hog called a central air conditioning system.

Yet, just try to dig up the land to install a geothermal loop or stick a large PV panel array on your lawn (because you want easy access to it). How about the distance from the road that you are required, by ordinance, to put up a tower for a wind turbine? Be prepared to jump through several hoops, including peculiar ideas of what is aesthetically acceptable and what is not.

People say this is just common sense. NO IT ISN'T. It's a deliberate defense of an unsustainable energy status quo, period. Hello, Colchester, Vermont. Are you listening? I am certain that there will be some bureaucratic baloney thrown at the Tesla Wall Battery, regardless of the fact that it is unobtrusive. The old "licensed electrician must provide an annual inspection of LARGE battery systems (see the Tesla battery stats LOL!)" trick to generate local jobs for friends of town counselors comes to mind.

All Renewable Energy installations should be protected from town ordinances by Federal Law. But, of course, our bought and paid for "democracy" hasn't gotten around to that, for some reason...

Change is coming IN SPITE OF irrational and environmentally suicidal town ordinances. The fossil fuel government at every level will not let go of its gravy train easily. But it will, eventually, be forced to.

But for now, the poor are basically OUT of the Renewable Energy loop BY profit over planet, predatory capitalist DESIGN.

100% of the people could have 100% Renewable Energy if the Federal Reserve provided loans for Renewable Energy Systems at the same low interest rate set for home mortgages. It's really stupid that they don't. The massive number of jobs generated from this giant transition would boost GDP. But some rich pigs would lose profits. So it is not done. So it goes..
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 06, 2015, 03:10:42 pm

Ancient Greek Energy Storage Technology Challenges Tesla's Batteries

 Jeremy van Loon, Bloomberg 
 May 06, 2015

CALGARY -- A technology used in ancient Greece to power clocks and fire a cannon is undergoing a revival as the world searches for better ways to store energy from wind turbines and solar panels.


Compressed air, already used to power carnival rides, jackhammers and medical equipment, joins the crowded field of innovations chasing what may be a $21.5 billion market in 2024.

Compressed air auto Citroen drive train

Contenders include Elon Musk, chairman of Tesla Motors Inc., who this month unveiled a suite of batteries to store electricity for homes, businesses and utilities.

While Tesla plans to begin delivering its rechargeable lithium-ion model in late summer, compressed air storage systems, or CAES, may have an edge.
The technology can be used to store large amounts of power for weeks at less than the cost of batteries.

“You need bulk storage to support all the renewables and CAES is pretty much the only technology to do that,” said Jim Heid, vice president at Dresser-Rand Group Inc., a supplier of compressed air products. “It’s a worldwide phenomenon because of all the intermittent renewables coming online.”


The mechanics are simple. Start with electricity from wind turbines and solar panels to run compressors that fill man-made caverns also used for natural gas storage. When the pressurized air is released, it drives turbines that provide clean power when the sun doesn’t shine and the wind doesn’t blow.

In less than a decade, annual investment in compressed air will be almost $5 billion, according to Navigant Research. That will support more than 11 gigawatts of installed capacity and help renewable power developers match demand with supply.

Competition is stiff. Along with batteries, developers are using everything from vats of molten salt to rooftop tanks filled with ice to store energy, a market Navigant sees expanding about 35-fold by 2024 from $605.8 million this year.

Improvements Needed

Even supporters acknowledge that air storage needs to improve. The systems currently return only about 60 percent of the power used to fill caverns, according to Dresser-Rand.

“When you put in one unit of energy, you want to get one unit out,” said Sam Shelton, senior fellow at the Strategic Energy Institute at the Georgia Institute of Technology. “Air is not very dense so compression storage is low efficiency. It’s all economics.”

Advancements in technology will boost efficiency and eliminate the need to heat the pressurized air with natural gas, reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Developers are improving above-ground vessels for smaller-scale applications.

“Overall it’s a market that has a couple of niches,” said Brian Warshay, an analyst with Bloomberg New Energy Finance in New York. “A lot depends on the location and the proximity to demand.”

Two years ago, California regulators asked the state’s three biggest utilities to add 1.33 gigawatts of energy-storage capacity by 2020 -- about 20 percent more than currently exists in the world, excluding pumped hydropower systems.

Rooftop Ice

Spain’s Abengoa SA is developing a solar-thermal project in California that will incorporate power storage. Ice Energy Holdings Inc., a Santa Barbara, California-based company, is pioneering a storage method using rooftop ice to provide cooling during the day.

The Greek inventor Ctesibius wrote studies on the science of compressed air in the third century BC. The technology was used in an alarm clock, a cannon that shot arrows and to open the gates at the Temple of Alexandria.

Thanks to its scale, compressed air storage today offers a solution to a challenge facing grid operators -- how to store wind power at night when demand for electricity slumps, and solar power for cloudy days.

Compressed air can store hundreds of megawatt hours of electricity for weeks at a time. Batteries are useful for smaller volumes for shorter periods, said Rocco Vita, director of emerging technology at pipeline company Enbridge Inc., which operates solar and wind farms across North America.

Texas Wind

Chamisa Energy, based in Santa Fe, New Mexico, is seeking to raise about $400 million to build a compressed air project in the Texas Panhandle that can store wind energy at night and release it when turbines are still.


“We’re surrounded by some of the best wind in the U.S. and the wind often blows in the off-peak,” said Alissa Oppenheimer, managing director at Chamisa. “There are numerous times of the day when the price of wind is negative.”

Investors, who may not understand the advantages of the technology or are concerned that air storage systems are inefficient, have been slow to commit, Oppenheimer said.

Dresser-Rand built one of the world’s two commercial compressed air systems in Alabama in 1991 and is currently working on other projects in Texas, said Heid. In Alabama, Power South Energy Cooperative’s 110-megawatt system stores enough energy from nearby power plants to power 110,000 homes. The world’s first commercial application of the technology was in Germany in 1978 with a 290-megawatt plant.

Surplus Energy

In Canada, Ontario’s grid operator wants to add 16 megawatts of storage, including CAES, to cope with a supply surge from wind turbines and solar panels.  ;DNRStor Inc., which is bidding for the contract, expects the efficiency and cost of air storage to improve.

Were Ontario to add 1,000 megawatts of compressed air storage, consumers would save C$8 billion ($6.6 billion) over 20 years, said NRStor Chief Executive Officer Annette Verschuren. With the system she’s proposing, stored air could turn turbines for as long as 300 hours.

“Ontario has really built up a lot of renewable energy and is building up a lot more surplus energy,” Verschuren said. “We would capture the night stuff, capture the weekend stuff and put the energy on the grid during daytime.”

NRStor sees the price of compressed air systems falling fall to one-tenth that of the expected $350 a kilowatt hour cost of battery storage in 2022, said Verschuren. She declined to say how much the Ontario project will cost.

Copyright 2015 Bloomberg
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 06, 2015, 10:36:57 pm
Is Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Scalable? Scalability is actually what makes CAES cost effective. IOW, YES!

Compressed Air Energy Storage
Trishna Das
James D. McCalley
Iowa State University
Ames, Iowa

Agebert NOTE: VERY brief summary of this educational chapter. I did not crunch any numbers. The math is above my skill set.  :(  But I can read graphs and English quite well.  ;D



CAES storage reservoirs for underground storage can be classified into three categories: salt, hard rock, and porous rock. These geologies are found to account for a significant fraction of United States (Fig. 2). Previous studies indicate that over 75% of the U.S. has geologic conditions that are potentially favorable for underground air storage [18]. Fig. 3 (at link) shows different storage mediums throughout US.


Currently the major drawback for CAES is its dependability on fuel source for the power generation. Natural gas prices contribute to the economics of CAES. Like any energy conversion system CAES also has its share of losses, thus working with an efficiency percentage around 60 % to 70 %. Some of these backlogs in CAES technology are currently overcome by enhanced CAES configurations and concepts. These advancements are given in a later section.


The CAES model developed is able to capture the influence of storage reservoir dynamics on performance measures such as demand met and input spillage percentage. From Fig.12, it is seen that irrespective of turbine and compressor sizing, a good enough reservoir volume is required to ensure effective addressing of wind variability issues by CAES for this particular wind farm.


We can notice that as the maximum pressure limit increases, the revenue per year and the operational performance measures too increase. So it corroborates the model‘s ability to account for internal storage dynamics and their direct influence on CAES operational and economic outcome.

Since the model has the ability to simulate CAES operation for longer periods of time within reasonable simulation time while also capturing finer second-second or few minutes variations, it could enable performing very finer sub-hourly, say 5-mins, unit commitment studies. Therefore the model can lend itself well in long term production costing studies to evaluate generation planning strategies.




In IEEE 24-bus Reliability Test System (RTS) wind and CAES were integrated and production costing studies were conducted. The production costing study is an hourly simulation for 48 hours (2 days). The data for load and wind generation is taken from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for Nov 2nd and 3rd in the year 2010. This data was chosen as it covered good variation in wind pattern. The program was developed using MATLAB with TOMLAB optimization platform.


The production costing study was done with 25% wind capacity penetration with wind farms at bus 17, 21, and 22, and a CAES at bus 21. The turbine rating is 50 MW, compressor is 50 MW and the storage reservoir is 200 MWh.The system contains various mix of generation facilities such as 7 coal generation plants, 2 nuclear generations, 3 natural gas generations, 2 oil fired plants with variable ramping rates, with CAES being the fastest ramping unit. The total system generation without wind generation and CAES unit is 3400MW.


We can observe from Fig. 12 that during high wind spell of the first day the compressor reduces the wind spillage by charging the CAES reservoir, and thereby contributing to down-regulation and earning revenue from the ancillary service market. CAES also participates actively in providing spinning reserves and up regulation, as seen from the plot for turbine.

From the above figures (in addition to figure 12 there are others at the link) it confirms that with increase in wind penetration CAES gains greater benefits from the grid operations.

On the other hand, it is important to quantify how the grid benefits by the installation of CAES unit.

Some of the metrics to quantify the grid benefits are

system production cost,

wind spillage percentage,

quality of regulation,


transmission congestion relief,

system stability improvement and so on.

CAES sizing is a key issue that influences the grid benefits as observed from Fig. 15 (at link). In Fig. 15 as the CAES sizing is increased the wind spillage is reduced. At 10% wind capacity penetration it is observed that the grid without CAES had 4% of wind spillage and with increased CAES size the spillage was reduced to nearly 0.5%. The blue curve in Fig. 15 shows wind energy penetration for corresponding wind capacity penetration in the system. It would be interesting to investigate the correlation between the CAES sizing, and wind energy penetration. (


In this chapter, a state space model for compressed air storage technology was developed, which monitors the storage dynamics at any instant of time in terms of the reservoir pressure and mass of compressed air stored.

The model was validated using the operational curves from Huntorf CAES. The CAES model developed is simulated as a collocated facility to address the wind variability issue of a particular wind farm. The model facilitates capturing storage dynamics‘ influence on CAES‘s operational performance and economic indices. Eventually some standard CAES configurations consisting of variations in turbine, compressor and reservoir ratings are simulated and a wide range of performance indices are computed for assessing the worth of each configuration for that particular geography.

From the results we understand that such a venture would require huge investments with very long payback periods. Thus CAES acting as an auxiliary support for individual wind farms may not be as wise as investing in a system level CAES with higher capacity.

Economic assessment of the storage benefits was studied with the CAES model developed and incorporated into the production costing program. The assessment platform with the unit commitment and economic dispatch program modules dispatched the CAES unit under increasing wind penetration levels.

From the results we  observe that CAES plays a vital role in the ancillary and reserve markets with increasing wind penetration, thereby benefitting grid as well as earning revenue to cover its huge investment costs.

The profits earned by the CAES indicate that this venture would be lucrative with the changing grid scenarios involving increasing integration of variable generations. The study points to an interesting direction that the CAES compressor providing down regulation service is especially effective in absorbing the high wind spells, and thus reducing wind spillage and providing economic and quick ramping regulation service to the grid.

Storage‘s participation in ancillary services is attractive because the new generation portfolio not only requires more regulation services, but also higher ramping capabilities and more operating reserves to counter the costs associated with deeper and more frequent cycling of fossil units.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 07, 2015, 02:37:04 pm

Stored energy from the SURPLUS SUPPLY of Solar and Wind is the answer to EXCESS DEMAND at ANY TIME in the day OR night. (

Dec. 6, 2014
Smooth Operators
Grid-scale storage

"The world would no doubt be a better place if the externalities imposed by fossil fuels were properly accounted for in the price of electricity."  (

The corporation referenced in the above article has done the math. Here is how it works, followed by two videos from their site.  (


Details:  (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 07, 2015, 08:18:07 pm
Photovoltaic (PV) panels combined with batteries will do to the electric utility industry what digital cameras did to the photography business.  (

Utilities, Cheap Batteries Won't Hurt You; You Have Much Worse Things to Worry About - Part I: Assault and Battery (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 07, 2015, 09:00:43 pm
Agelbert NOTE: This is from SPARK, the newsletter of the Rocky Mountain Institute. It was written just before the Tesla Battery announcement but it has great info on how to get the most out of the Tesla residential and business Battery.

There is nobody that can make better use of new technology to reduce (and eventually eliminate) dirty energy better.  (

Apr 30, 2015

Authors Jesse Morris Manager

The 10 Things Likely To Be Missing From Tesla’s Stationary Storage News

Later today Tesla Motors is expected to make a major announcement about new stationary storage offerings—both a home battery and a very large utility-scale battery. Everyone, it seems, has been abuzz for days, evidenced in wall-to-wall coverage from Bloomberg to Yahoo!. Investment analysts have been weighing in, too, and Tesla’s stock is up significantly this week on the forthcoming news.

Without speculating on the product’s technical specifications or other details we won’t know until Tesla makes the actual announcement, I think we can safely assume that Tesla’s talking points will follow a general three-point outline:
•Stationary storage—including behind-the-meter—is here for the long haul
•Storage has gotten very cheap (or will soon, thanks to the Gigafactory)
•Storage offers value to residential, commercial, and utility customers today

For residential and commercial customers, Tesla’s announcement is another proof point that cost-effective, customer-sited solar-plus-storage systems are coming, as we recently analyzed in The Economics of Load Defection.

However, an obsessive focus on cheap storage for customers risks missing the bigger opportunity. For batteries to be truly transformative—for customers and the grid—we need to recognize the full range of values they can provide and remove barriers (especially market participation) preventing customer-sited batteries from providing all of those values.

Twelve Services Energy Storage Can Deliver to the Grid

For sure, Tesla’s new systems will be used for backup power. They’ll also be used to lower customer bills through arbitrage against rates (such as demand charges) and demand response programs, as many other energy storage companies currently do. But without even knowing additional detail about the product itself, I can safely say that Tesla’s new product will able to do much, much more for multiple stakeholder groups including customers, utilities, and independent system operators (ISOs) / regional transmission organizations (RTOs).

In fact, when products like Tesla’s are installed behind the customer meter and networked with hundreds or thousands of other similar systems, storage is capable of providing about a dozen services to the electricity system at large. Furthermore, in many cases, it costs less for aggregated behind-the-meter storage to provide these services than what we pay for them to be delivered now in other ways.

The services energy storage can deliver when installed behind the meter like Tesla’s planned products fall into three categories: 1) services for customers, 2) services for ISOs / RTOs, and 3) services for utilities.

Services for Customers

•First, they can be used to directly benefit customers by:

•Providing backup power

•Reducing demand charges

•Optimizing customer bills against time of use or other non-volumetric rates

•Increasing self-consumption of distributed solar energy.
In places like Germany and Australia where net metering doesn’t exist or in some corners of the U.S. where electricity is expensive and net metering isn’t available, storage can be used to increase building-level self-consumption from a distributed solar system to maximize the economic benefit of solar. 

These services, especially the first two, are likely to be squarely in line with what Tesla and its partners will announce as major values of their new battery product. However, these customer benefits tell only part of the story; an exclusive focus on these aspects of Tesla’s (and others’) batteries will miss the bigger story and a bigger opportunity.

Services for ISOs / RTOs

Second, storage—especially fast-response batteries like the chemistries found in electric vehicle batteries—can support the grid by delivering a suite of ancillary services. In restructured states like California, this means energy storage can bid into wholesale electricity markets. In non-restructured states like Colorado, these services are delivered using assets directly controlled by the utility—not a marketplace.

These services include:

•Frequency regulation

•Spinning and non-spinning reserves

•Load following / energy arbitrage

•Black start

•Voltage support

In many cases, batteries can provide these services more reliably and at a lower cost than the technology that currently provides a majority of them—thermal power plants—so by using energy storage to deliver these services, some electricity systems can be maintained at a lower cost.

Services for Utilities

Third, storage systems installed behind the customer meter can be dispatched to provide deferral or adequacy services to utilities, such as:

•Transmission and distribution upgrade deferral. When load forecasts indicate transmission or distribution nodes will exceed their rated load carrying capacity, incremental investments in energy storage can be used to effectively increase the node’s capacity and avoid large, overbuilt, expensive upgrades to the nodes themselves.

•Transmission congestion relief. At certain times of the day, ISOs charge utilities to use congested transmission lines. Discharging energy storage systems located downstream of congested lines can avoid these charges.

•Resource adequacy. Instead of using or investing in combustion turbines to meet peak generation requirements, utilities can call upon other assets like energy storage instead.

In the U.S. alone, we’re slated to spend an estimated $1–2 trillion over the next fifteen years on electricity infrastructure. By deploying energy storage—along with demand response, energy efficiency, smart controls, and distributed solar—many of these investments can be avoided in the first place, saving money for society along the way.

Barriers to Market Participation

There’s little argument that systems like Tesla’s, when installed behind the customer meter, can technically deliver these services to the electricity grid. However, even though in many cases behind the meter energy storage—in addition to demand response and distributed solar PV—can provide these services at a competitive cost, several regulations, laws, and misunderstandings have largely restricted the ability of the technology to do so.

In Tesla’s home state of California and in a select number of states like New York, Texas, and Minnesota, regulatory reform efforts are under way that should help overcome many of these challenges.

But until those efforts are successful, these barriers currently restrict behind-the-meter storage to delivering a much shorter list of the services outlined above—even in states leading the charge for electricity system regulatory reform. Encouragingly, even with a truncated list of services to work with, Tesla will still be able to use its new product and create value for thousands of customers including commercial customers looking to reduce their demand charges and residential customers under dynamic rates. In fact, by deploying their new product to deliver only one or two of the twelve services energy storage is actually able to deliver, Tesla will demonstrate the value that their systems can create for the electricity system at large. This act will help overcome myriad regulatory challenges and utility misconceptions facing energy storage by pointing to real-world successes.

A Path Forward

Tesla won’t be alone in working to overcome these barriers to unfettered market access for energy storage and other distributed energy resources. Groups like the Electric Power Research Institute have research and analytical tools coming down the pipeline that will help to illustrate what batteries like Tesla’s can do for the system, and at what cost. And later this summer RMI will be releasing new research as well, including a body of work focused on quantifying the costs and benefits of behind-the-meter energy storage to the grid.

Through these efforts and with the availability of new products like Tesla’s in the marketplace we hope to provide tangible evidence to decision makers on the merits of distributed energy resources and the changes that need to take place in order to unlock their full potential.(
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 12, 2015, 01:48:55 pm
05/08/2015 11:45 AM            
Tesla's New PowerWall Battery Sells Out! :o  ;D News

Calling the response "overwhelming" and "crazy" Elon Musk says Powerwall batteries are already sold out through mid-2016.

Within days of announcing the launch of Tesla Energy, the company has 38,000 reservations for Powerwall - the home version of the battery. And since most people ordered more than one battery, the sales add up to more like 50,000-60,000.

There's also lots of interest on the industrial/ utility side for the larger version, called Powerpacks  ( . There are 2500 reservations for about 10 Powerpacks each, for a total 25,000 . (

Tesla also received 2,500 requests from distribution and installation companies. (

Musk said all this on a call with investors on Tesla's first quarter results, but spent most of the time answering questions on Tesla Energy. The Gigafactory in Nevada - which comes online in mid-2016 - could be devoted to just these batteries, he says, indicating that this first factory won't meet demand.

He expects demand for these batteries to be double that for electric cars.

Fossil fuel produced energy WILL NOT BE USED to operate the above Battery Factory.  (

In the first quarter, Tesla sold 10,030 Model S cars - 55% more than Q1 2014 - with revenues of $1.1 billion and a loss of $159 million. Its Model X SUV goes on sale late this year, followed by a lower priced Model S in 2017 ($35,000).

For background, read our article, Tesla's Next Goal: Transform How We Get Electricity (


For businesses and utilities, Tesla Energy offers "Powerpacks   ( ," more powerful versions of the home-based system "designed to scale infinitely."   ( They integrate lithium batteries, power electronics, thermal management and controls into a turnkey system.

Powepacks are being piloted in over 100 projects, including Amazon Web Services data centers, Target and Walmart stores and Green Mountain, Southern California Edison and other utilities.

Incredibly, Musk plans to make its battery patents available for free as he has done for the electric car.  ;D
Renewable energy= (                                ( Fuelers
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on July 12, 2015, 04:18:01 pm
Get the MOST out of your PV system! Learn how in this video.  (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on July 17, 2015, 07:04:41 pm

Why lithium-iron phosphate?

Lithium-iron-phosphate (LiFePO4 or LFP) is the safest of the mainstream li-ion battery types. The nominal voltage of a LFP cell is 3,2V (lead-acid: 2V/cell). A 12,8V LFP battery therefore consists of 4 cells connected in series; and a 25,6V battery consists of 8 cells connected in series.


A lead-acid battery will fail prematurely due to sulfation if:

• If it operates in deficit mode during long periods of time (i. e. if the battery is rarely, or never at all,fully charged).

• If it is left partially charged or worse, fully discharged (yacht or mobile home during winter time).

A LFP battery does not need to be fully charged. Service life even slightly improves in case of partial charge instead of a full charge. This is a major advantage of LFP compared to lead-acid. Other advantages are the wide operating temperature range, excellent cycling performance, low internal resistance and high efficiency (see below). LFP is therefore the chemistry of choice for very demanding applications.
Efficient In several applications (especially off-grid solar and/or wind), energy efficiency can be of crucial importance.

The round trip energy efficiency (discharge from 100% to 0% and back to 100% charged) of the average leadacid battery is 80%.

The round trip energy efficiency of a LFP battery is 92%.

The charge process of lead-acid batteries becomes particularly inefficient when the 80% state of charge has been reached, resulting in efficiencies of 50% or even less in solar systems where several days of reserve energy is required (battery operating in 70% to 100% charged state).

In contrast, a LFP battery will still achieve 90% efficiency under shallow discharge conditions.
Size and weight Saves up to 70% in space
Saves up to 70% in weight


LFP batteries are expensive when compared to lead-acid. But in demanding applications, the high initial cost will be more than compensated by longer service life, superior reliability and excellent efficiency.

Endless flexibility

LFP batteries are easier to charge than lead-acid batteries. The charge voltage may vary from 14V to 16V (as long as no cell is subjected to more than 4,2V), and they do not need to be fully charged. Therefore several batteries can be connected in parallel and no damage will occur if some batteries are less charged than others.

With or without Battery Management System (BMS)?

Important facts:

1. A LFP cell will fail if the voltage over the cell falls to less than 2,5V (note: recovery by charging with a low current, less than 0,1C, is sometimes possible).

2. A LFP cell will fail if the voltage over the cell increases to more than 4,2V.
Lead-acid batteries will eventually also be damaged when discharged too deeply or overcharged, but not immediately. A lead-acid battery will recover from total discharge even after it has been left in discharged state during days or weeks (depending on battery type and brand).

3. The cells of a LFP battery do not auto-balance at the end of the charge cycle.
The cells in a battery are not 100% identical. Therefore, when cycled, some cells will be fully charged or discharged earlier than others. The differences will increase if the cells are not balanced/equalized from time to time.

In a lead-acid battery a small current will continue to flow even after one or more cells are fully charged (the main effect of this current is decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen). This current helps to fully charge other cells that are lagging behind, thus equalizing the charge state of all cells.

The current through a LFP cell however, when fully charged, is nearly zero
, and lagging cells will therefore not be fully charged. Over time the differences between cells may become some so extreme that, even though the overall battery voltage is within limits, some cells will fail due to over- or under-voltage. Cell balancing is therefore highly recommended.

In addition to cell balancing, a BMS will:

- Prevent cell under voltage by timely disconnecting the load.
- Prevent cell overvoltage by reducing charge current or stopping the charge process.
- Shut down the system in case of over temperature.

A BMS is therefore indispensable to prevent damage to large Li-ion battery banks.,8-Volt-lithium-iron-phosphate-batteries-EN.pdf,8V
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on July 26, 2015, 06:06:45 pm

DIY Lead-Acid to Lithium-Ion battery conversion

Rinoa Super-Genius   

Published on Sep 15, 2013

Well my favorite battery died on me, so i decided to refit it with old 18650 cells that i have laying around. and now i finally have a use for those old cells too. right now it's running at 8v and as i add more battery cells i'll cahnge the voltage to whatever works best. i plan on using a voltage step-up transformer with it to run whatever i need.

this Duralast battery was from my greatgrandparents 1981 Mercury Zephyr (witch i got and may convert to electric someday) and its one of the first batteries i really messed with when i was younger. so since it's helped me so much i'll help it back by refitting it with a more useful battery chemistry.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 05, 2015, 08:17:40 pm
How Lithium Batteries are made and where they mine Lithium in the USA
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 08, 2015, 10:31:38 pm
How Solar-plus-Battery Systems Insulate Customers from Rising Retail Electricity Prices   (
Oct 5, 2015

David Labrador Writer / Editor

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 10, 2015, 07:32:32 pm
Planning on using a diesel or gasoline powered generator to recharge your batteries in a collapse scenario is a really STUPID idea. See below for a common sense applications of mechanical leverage and advantage.

Young humans using mechanical leverage are RENEWABLE ENERGY back up generators

Here's an idea:  (

( Ride one of THESE inside a large wheel that generates electricity. (


Now that's a REALLY cheap generator that DOES NOT use fossil fuel POISONS. When you are in a hole, you are supposed to stop DIGGING!

There will ALWAYS be energetic types (while they are young, of course  ;D) available to generate electricity after the collapse of civilization. That is, until the big homo sap die offs occur...  :P

But let's take this in chronological order, shall we? There are STILL over 7 billion of us around, and a HUGE chunk of that population is young and will soon work for food.

It's gonna be REAL HARD to find distillates after the collapse, comprende amigos? Please discard your irrationally optimistic views of back up fossil fuel generator help for you and yours. They are NOT going to work in a collapse for more than a few months.(

When the common people, post collapse and well into the global warming caused vicious weather, FINALLY do the math on cause and effect from fossil fuels, you can expect a lynch mob to visit you if they get wind that you are STILL using fossil fuels...
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 10, 2015, 09:18:11 pm
Where can you observe one working? I'd like to see it.  Are there videos?

This is not running a generator, but Ferris wheels like this are turned by powerful internal combustion engines or electric motors in the USA. There is no way a person riding a bicycle generator could supply the energy needed to turn this Ferris wheel. consequently, you can assume that the power these humans are generating, if said Ferris wheel was turning a generator head, would be substantial. They are not world class athletes. They are probably very cheap labor. With heavy weights around the Ferris wheel and a race inside with people riding bicycles, the torque you could exert would be even more than is being produced in this video.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 13, 2015, 06:34:52 pm

Motor Yacht Matsko: Quiet, inexpensive energy


Design brief: Quiet energy onboard with fuel savings

The aim of Matsko’s investment company (Fuego Ltd.) was to have an AC power supply on-board, without using a generator or shore supply. The project was assisted by the fact that Fuego had all the necessary skills to wire the installation. Based on this information SCHRACK TECHNIK were able to develop a solution and supply the system components. All of the new essential components were manufactured and supplied by Victron Energy.

Originally the vessel’s electricity was supplied by the on-board generators or shore supply. This resulted in the generators having to be used in quiet places in nature when anchored, as obviously no shore supply was available. This was particularly unwelcome at night when trying to enjoy a peaceful evening in some quiet hidden bay. Whilst no air conditioning was required throughout the evening and night, the generator was required to cover refrigerators and some lighting. Although electricity consumption was relatively small, there was always the irritation of the generator ‘muttering’ all night. Furthermore it is known that when a generator is operating in this way it is substantially under loaded, i.e. well below rated load, so unfortunately it is not running in a fuel efficient way.

Generator fuel consumption was around 4 l/h at idle, i.e. with a light load, and 6 l/h at full load. The idea was therefore to completely shut down the generator in the evening and the morning and use ‘quiet energy’ to power the refrigerator and lighting. Then if the vessel were to sail during the day, the main engines would run, with both generators working which you can then load for any additional battery charging.

This can achieve two objectives: when the generators are operating, they are working in the area of higher loads, so the better efficiency in terms of the number of litres of fuel with energy being produced more efficiently. Now any persons on-board can enjoy a peaceful sleep with ‘quiet energy’ being supplied for the night maintenance of the vessel, when at anchor. But it is also clear that by paying attention to the energy consumption at sea and when berthing in a marina connected to the shore supply, that instead of using the generators such an approach can reduce overall power consumption even further by using the silent low-cost shore energy to charge batteries, in order to be ready for sailing the following day.

All of these goals can be achieved by adding a suitable battery bank to store energy which can then be used later. This desire for tranquility on-board also decreases the overall operating costs of the system too.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on December 30, 2015, 11:55:40 pm

Tesla Powerwall – A Battery Powered Home
By: Owen Geiger
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on February 25, 2016, 04:03:49 pm
Feb 24, 2016

Authors Margaret McCall Associate

Water Heaters: As Sexy as a Tesla?  ???

How grid-interactive water heaters are joining the battery revolution

Of all the new tech emerging on the energy landscape, water heaters seem an unlikely contender. Alongside battery players like Tesla, with its Model X and Powerwall, water heaters look like even more of a stretch. However, the growing industry consensus is that grid-interactive water heaters have serious potential. They just might be the unexpected battery in your basement.

Why the buzz about water heaters?

Water heaters and batteries have one fundamental feature in common: they both store energy, batteries as charge and water heaters as heat. This ability to store energy gives water heaters flexibility. For example, they can be heated at night when power is cheap without jeopardizing your ability to take a hot shower in the morning. 

Grid-interactive water heaters (GIWH) are electric water heaters that the grid operator or the local utility can control in real time (or the customer, automated software, or a third party could control them in response to granular retail price signals from the utility). This controllability makes a GIWH valuable for more than just hot showers. For example, in addition to heating water when power is cheap, it can also shut down during yearly system peaks, help integrate renewables, and provide services to the electric grid like frequency regulation. Optimizing water heaters like this can significantly reduce carbon emissions and, as explained below, create billions of dollars in value.

Better yet, this functionality is not dependent on future technology: any electric water heater with a tank—be it old-school electric resistance or newfangled heat pump—can become grid-interactive. Making modifications to an existing water heater to install a grid-connected communications device takes a couple of hours and could cost a few hundred dollars. However, building in grid-interactive capabilities at the factory only costs a few dollars and provides much more value to the grid and to the customer.

A high-value source of demand flexibility

In our 2015 report, The Economics of Demand Flexibility, RMI analyzed the potential of flexible loads to provide significant economic value to the grid, finding at least $13 billion per year from common residential loads like water heaters and air conditioners. We found that water heaters, especially, have the potential to be an easily-tapped and high-value source of this flexibility.

A new study by the Brattle Group provides an in-depth exploration of the economic benefits of GIWHs. The fact that the study was jointly commissioned by utilities, environmental advocates, and industry groups highlights the diversity of groups interested in the potential of GIWHs. Brattle analyzed the potential of multiple scenarios, calculating that up to $200 in net system benefits may be realized annually for every GIWH participant. Ultimately, the authors concluded that GIWHs are a resource with significant opportunity for reductions in both costs and emissions, and one whose operational viability is already being demonstrated in pilot projects around the country—an exciting endorsement for the mild-mannered water heater.

Full article:

Agelbert COMMENT: Good article but here's the state electric rate board elephant in the demand flexibility room.

Most power companies use demand flexibility ONLY for their benefit and offer the customer no savings from lower rates at low demand times. I live in Vermont and that is the case with GMP (Green Mountain Power). A glance at their different rates gives blatant evidence that they continue to give lower rates to industries that actually DO contribute to higher peak loads! This volume pricing 20th century antiquated approach is wrongheaded in the light of our climate change and carbon footprint crisis. But they insist it is "good for the economy". Sure, if you ignore he externalized pollution costs!

Meanwhile, GMP is partnering with Tesla to sell us the Powerwall as a back up to power failure without offering us a NICKEL (i.e. a penny or so off the normal hourly rate of about 15 cents per Kwh) in lower rates savings if we use an installed Powerwall during off peak hours to run our water heater or wash clothes, etc.

This type of power company ONE WAY PROFITS street is precisely what you at RMI should address more often. As your article points out, it's in their best interests to give lower rates to non-corporate customers during off peak times because the power company can then avoid buying extra power that they aren't generating or budgeting for some added plant and equipment. But, in most places in the USA, Vermont being one of them, the stranglehold of power companies on the state rate setting boards guarantees that no variable rates for residential customers are available. This is 20th century 'greed is good' biosphere damage promoting stupidity that favors the burning of fossil fuels for peak loads. This is insane.

Please contact GMP and let them know that many customers (that WILL NOT buy that Powerwall if it's just a glorified backup generator to be used for a few hours a year) WOULD buy the Powerwall they are marketing if we were offered a penny or lower hourly rate discount from our rather high fixed rate during off peak times. Better yet, contact Tesla. I'm sure they will get the appropriate message  ( to GMP, if you know what I mean.  ;)

GMP could provide flexible residential rates that if they wanted to. They are just too greedy to. As your article makes clear, that does not make economic or energy sense. I'm sure Elon Musk would agree.

Green Mountain Power of Vermont Rates:

RESIDENTIAL = 14.852 cents per kwh (
(that's straight off my most recent power bill WITHOUT the added charges)

INDUSTRIAL   =   9.88   cents per kwh     (

Green Mountain Power rates paraded as  slightly lower than the other area rates in a New England Comparison Rate Chart (

There is no excuse for these power companies to not provide flexible rates to residential customers or to provide the ridiculously low rates to the industrial customers that significantly add to peak load demand.   (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on February 26, 2016, 10:03:21 pm
Enphase Energy Announces New Residential Storage Product  (

February 25th, 2016 by Kyle Field


Enphase Energy has long been a key provider of microinverter and wiring solutions for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) installations and has built on that success with another important component of a holistic energy solution — storage. Before we dive into the company’s recently updated product, let’s talk a bit about the Enphase approach to “going green” at home and for the entire grid. That all starts with the Enphase Home Energy Solution (video).

Full story:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on April 20, 2016, 09:33:46 pm
How to make a lithium battery for an electric bicycle  (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 03, 2016, 08:03:51 pm
Researchers create incredible, everlasting battery

Megan Treacy (@mtreacy)
Technology / Gadgets
 May 2, 2016


A typical lithium-ion battery starts to deteriorate after a few thousand charge cycles because lithium deposits build up on the electrodes and cause the battery to lose the ability to hold a charge. For this new battery, the researchers used nanowires, which are highly conductive and have a large surface area, making them great at holding charge as electrodes.

Nanowire are very fragile though and the abuse of charge/discharge cycles breaks them down quickly. To prevent that, the researchers coated a gold nanowire in a manganese dioxide shell and encased the assembly in a Plexiglas-like gel electrolyte.

The gel coating was just an experiment, an afterthought, but when they tested it they found that the device was able to go through 200,000 cycles without any loss of capacity or any damage to the nanowire.  :o  (


“That was crazy,” said Reginald Penner, chair of UCI’s chemistry department and researcher on the project, “because these things typically die in dramatic fashion after 5,000 or 6,000 or 7,000 cycles at most.”


The coated electrode was able to hold its shape better than one without a coating and the researchers think that the think the gel plasticizes the metal oxide in the battery giving it flexibility and preventing any fractures.

Agelbert NOTE:
I am CERTAIN the fossil fuel industry will do whatever it can to suppress this massive Renewable energy breakthrough because this technology means  ZERO storage limitations for EVs powered from Renewable Energy harvesting technologies like wind and solar AND ZERO NEED for gasoline powered vehicles.

Renewable energy= (                                ( Fuelers
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 03, 2016, 10:15:54 pm
coated a gold nanowire

Sounds interesting AG.    ;) (


I was just about to PM you with a copy of this post. I figured this would be of interest to you.   (    (

It is true that nano-wires do not require a lot of metal. So, the battery price should compete favorably with lithium ion, considering the vast charge cycle range.  (

This technology, if not suppressed by the fossil fuel fascists  (, will move GOLD up so high in DEMAND in the industrial sector (where the money manipulators CANNOT GAME the price) that the intrinsic value of that precious metal will be BOOSTED mightily by it's industrial metal status, above and beyond electrical contacts and such.     (

As you know, ALL industrial metals CAN be recycled indefinitely without new mining efforts. So, the use of gold nanowires to help provide battery storage for electric powered houses, cars ,ships, trains, trucks and aircraft to eliminate the need for ALL internal combustion powered vehicles permanently would certainly be sustainable as well as being cost effective.

Gold mining, hopefuly, will be done in a more sustainable way to keep up with demand.  (

The fossil fuelers will sniff and say, "This Quantum jump in battery storage technology is not ready for prime time".

Yes it is! Battery technology like this can be scaled up in a couple of years BECAUSE the battery manufacturing infrastructure has already been pioneered with the lithium ion factories all over the world. The doped nano-wires, once any bugs in the assembly process are ironed out, can change our transportation picture in less than a decade! (

This is BIG! This is HUGE! And, of course, people like you with a nice gold stash are going to do quite well. 

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 19, 2016, 09:03:01 pm
Storing The Sun’s Energy Just Got A Whole Lot Cheaper  (

 by Joe Romm May 18, 2016 10:50 am

CREDIT: S&C Electric Company
Part of a game-changing 4.2 MW solar + storage system in Minster, Ohio. (picture at article link)

With prices dropping rapidly for both renewables and battery storage, the economics of decarbonizing the grid are changing faster than most policymakers, journalists, and others realize. So, as part of my ongoing series, “Almost Everything You Know About Climate Change Solutions Is Outdated,” I will highlight individual case studies of this real-time revolution.

My Monday post discussed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s (FERC) report that in the first quarter, the U.S. grid added 18 megawatts of new natural gas generating capacity, but 1,291 MW of new renewables. But one of FERC’s “Electric Generation Highlights” for March deserves special attention as a leading indicator of the revolutionary new economics of solar plus storage:

Half Moon Ventures LLC’s 4.2 MW Minster Solar Project in Auglaise County, OH is online. This project includes an energy storage capacity.

The Minster “solar + storage system is the largest U.S. facility of its kind connected through a municipal utility,” according to S&C Electric Company, which built and integrated the storage system. It combines a 4.3-MW photovoltaic systems and a 7-MW/3-MWh storage management system that provides power conversion with lithium ion batteries.

Lithium Ion storage The lithium-ion-based storage system used in Minster. (picture at article link)
CREDIT: S&C Electric Company
How does a storage system based on lithium-ion batteries make economic sense? The answer is: in a few different ways, with a system called “revenue stacking.” It’s worth taking a slightly wonky look at how such a system can stack or combine multiple revenue sources, since this is a defining feature of the game-changing new economics of solar energy plus storage.

To get the scoop on the system, I spoke to S&C’s Director of Grid Solutions, Troy Miller, who described this as “one of the first, if not the first” energy storage system to allow so many different revenues sources. The company has also posted online the full case study.

Capturing the Multi-Faceted Value of Energy Storage  (

First, this system lets Half Moon Venture sell into PJM’s market for frequency regulation. PJM is the regional transmission organization that coordinates wholesale electricity movement and maintains grid reliability for over 60 million customers in 13 Eastern and Midwestern states and the District of Columbia. Frequency regulation is “the injection and withdrawal of power on a second-by-second basis to maintain grid frequency at 60 Hz.”

To make this happen, “the battery system was sized for frequent charging and discharging cycles.” The control platform for the system was designed “to interface with PJM market interfacing software to enable the system to follow a signal from PJM.” The system analyzes both grid conditions and market pricing to determine how to optimize revenues by either dispatching to or absorbing electricity from the grid.

Second, the Village of Minster had a major power quality problem — “occasional low power factor,” which wastes energy and requires expensive equipment to fix. Minster had been planning to install $350,000 worth of capacitor banks dedicated to dealing with this issue. But S&C was able to design the storage system to “provide power-factor correction concurrent with frequency regulation services.” That saved Minster $350,000.

Third, the system will allow Minster to reduce peak mid-day demand charges. Utilities typically charge customers a fee whose size depends on the maximum power consumed during a day since, they argue, they have to maintain enough capacity to deal with the very biggest peak demand they might see — typically during a hot summer day.

For a large electricity user like Minster, “PJM looks at the five highest two-hour peak load periods across its entire territory” at the end of a given year. PJM then assesses the user a “Peak-Load Contribution” charge based on how big the peak is. In Minster’s case, it is some 11 megawatts. To save Minster money, S&C designed their energy storage system software “to predict when these peaks would occur” and, when they do, to “switch from providing frequency-regulation services to demand response services.” The system should be able to shave Minster’s peak demand some 2 MW.


The bottom line, according to Miller, is “Revenue stacking is one of the quickest ways to create a strong return on investment for energy storage systems.” He expects to see a lot more projects like these in the future.

I asked him how much the sharp drop in battery prices had opened the door to such projects. Miller explained that battery prices had come down by a factor of three in the last few years, which greatly “expands available opportunities that are currently in the money.” Lots of stuff that didn’t make economic sense now does.  ;D

We already know there are a number of ways to greatly increase the penetration of renewable energy using existing hardware and software. What we are now witnessing is the dawn of a revolution that will enable lithium-ion batteries to play a larger and larger role in that increased penetration.

Renewables are more unstoppable than ever. (

The only questions that remain now are

1) will we embrace the kind of aggressive deployment programs needed to avoid catastrophic global warming ???, and

2) will we nurture a domestic market that will maintain U.S. leadership in key job-creating low carbon technologies ???, or will we outsource more jobs to China and Europe.  :(
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on July 07, 2016, 10:36:51 pm

“Large battery in Brandenburg starts operations” (

A 5-megawatt storage battery has started regular operations in Brandenburg, after a 1-year test run was completed successfully, PV magazine reports.

The battery is among the biggest of its kind in Europe and has the prequalification as a network stabilising facility.

The facility could substitute the balancing power provided by a 100-megawatt thermal power plant, thereby saving 20,000 tonnes of CO2 annually  (, operator Upside G roup said.

Read the article in German (behind paywall) here (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on September 16, 2016, 02:49:08 pm
Tesla Wins Massive Contract to Help Power the California Grid  (

It's the latest response to a fossil-fuel disaster.

by  Tom Randall 
September 15, 2016 — 2:21 PM EDT

Tesla just won a bid to supply grid-scale power in Southern California to help prevent electricity shortages following the biggest natural gas leak in U.S. history. The Powerpacks, worth tens of millions of dollars, will be operational in record time—by the end of this year.   (   

Tesla Motors Inc. will supply 20 megawatts (80 megawatt-hours) of energy storage to Southern California Edison as part of a wider effort to prevent blackouts by replacing fossil-fuel electricity generation with lithium-ion batteries. Tesla's contribution is enough to power about 2,500 homes for a full day, the company said in a blog post on Thursday. But the real significance of the deal is the speed with which lithium-ion battery packs are being deployed.

"The storage is being procured in a record time frame," months instead of years, said Yayoi Sekine, a battery analyst at Bloomberg New Energy Finance. "It highlights the maturity of advanced technologies like energy storage to be contracted as a reliable resource in an emergency situation."

Here's a chart (at article link) showing the acceleration of energy-storage deployment as batteries gain popularity.

The deal fits into Tesla Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk's long-term vision of transforming Tesla from an an electric car company to a clean-energy company. That's the same motivation behind his pending deal to acquire SolarCity Corp., the rooftop solar company founded by his cousins, of which he is also chairman and the largest shareholder.

In total megawatt hours, the Tesla batteries will make up the biggest lithium-ion battery project in the world, though it will soon be surpassed by others under contract, according to data compiled by Bloomberg New Energy Finance.1increase click area A Tesla spokeswoman declined to comment on the value of the 20 megawatt deal. According to Tesla's website, a 2-megawatt Tesla battery system costs about $2.9 million, and any contracts greater than 2.5 megawatts must be negotiated directly with the company.

Last fall's natural gas leak at Aliso Canyon, near the Los Angeles neighborhood of Porter Ranch, released thousands of tons of methane before it was sealed in February. In its wake, SCE and other utilities are pursuing energy storage deals. To alleviate the risk of blackouts, regulators ordered the installation of systems to store electricity when demand is low and deploy it when usage spikes, especially during the winter heating season.

Although Sempra Energy plugged its massive gas leak in February, use of its Aliso Canyon complex, California’s biggest gas storage field, remains restricted. Grid-storage projects are now being fast-tracked and built in less than four months, compared to an average of three and a half years in previous procurements, according to data compiled by Bloomberg New Energy Finance.

In August, California regulators approved two contracts for AES Corp. to build 37 megawatts of grid-scale energy storage systems to address anticipated power shortfalls stemming from the Aliso Canyon leak. Canadian energy company AltaGas Ltd. also won a 20 megawatt (80 megawatt-hour) contract with Southern California Edison to be completed this year.

"This isn’t a Tesla-only story," Sekine said. "This is a broader energy win."
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 04, 2016, 06:07:47 pm
Chicago aquarium’s battery will have broader impact on the grid

Written By
David J. Unger

Chicago’s Shedd Aquarium is known for its work to exhibit and conserve the complexity of Earth’s aquatic ecosystems. But in the coming weeks, the civic institution will find itself an extension of another complex – albeit very manmade – system: the 21st-Century electric grid.

In June, Shedd installed a 60,000-pound, $2 million battery as part of the aquarium’s plan to cut energy consumption in half by 2020. Like all energy-storage systems, Shedd’s battery will provide valuable backup power and help meet peak demand for the aquarium.

But the 1 megawatt, lithium-ion system will also play a broader role in the way electricity supply and demand is balanced across the region. Once its battery comes online, Shedd will be able to sell stored power into electricity markets run by PJM Interconnection, the regional transmission organization that manages electricity production and flow across 13 states and the District of Columbia.

The battery was funded by a grant from the Illinois Department of Commerce & Economic Opportunity and installed by Schneider Electric. Bob Wengel, vice president of facilities at Shedd, says the battery should be ready for operation by the end of October.

At that point, Shedd will essentially straddle the divide between power consumer and power producer, a divide that has long defined the existing power grid.

“If you go back 30 years, the grid was a one-way street,” Wengel told Midwest Energy News during a recent visit to tour the aquarium’s energy system on a blustery, wet day. The rise of wind and solar power help reduce the strain on natural resources, but they also make traffic on the grid more complicated.

Grid operators like PJM have to make sure power flows are consistent and stable despite the rise in variable energy sources like wind and sun. Typically, that spare capacity is ensured by keeping fossil fuel plants running in case of a sudden change in supply or demand.

Batteries, like the one being installed at Shedd, offer a cleaner alternative for managing the grid. (

“If you had enough batteries out doing this … you could shut down those plants,” Wengel said. “Now think of the natural resources you save   (”

‘A huge relationship’  (

Of course, Shedd is not the first to embrace the title of “prosumer,” as producer-consumers are sometimes called in the energy industry. Nor will it be the last. Most households with rooftop solar are themselves extensions of the grid, both producing power and demanding it. Analysts expect the grid of tomorrow to consist largely of these kinds of distributed networks of prosumers sending energy back and forth to one another. (

But for Shedd – home to 32,000 aquatic animals – the impetus for helping to usher in a smarter, more decentralized grid hits particularly close to home.

“If we could save the CO2 emissions from power plants, and we can save the water resources, we’re starting to protect the habitat that our animals live in,” Wengel said. “There’s a huge relationship there for us.”

In 2013, Shedd partnered with the City of Chicago, the Illinois Science and Technology Coalition and other groups to put together a Master Energy Roadmap that would guide the aquarium toward reducing its energy use by nearly 10 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year. The average Illinois household consumes about 8,940 kWh per year, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That means Shedd would save enough energy each year to power around 1,100 Illinois households.

“The collaboration is an exceptional example of how organizations across public and private sectors can work together to find innovative ways to make our civic institutions use energy smarter, cleaner and more efficiently,” Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel said in a press release at the time.

Since then, Shedd has installed 913 solar panels with a capacity of 265 kilowatts on the roof of its Abbott Oceanarium and some 1,000 efficient LED lights throughout its facility on Chicago’s lakefront. The battery aims to complement the existing energy system by offering backup power for critical systems and an additional source of revenue in the form of selling power back onto the grid. Later on, it may be used for grid-scale demand response or to help meet the aquarium’s peak demand locally, Wengel said.

The battery and solar systems are relatively small in comparison to the aquarium’s overall energy use. The solar panels generate between 300,000 to 400,000 kWh a year. That’s a drop in the bucket compared to the 1.2 million to 1.6 million kWh Shedd consumes in just an average month.

But the southwest facing panels make up for limited capacity with good timing. By catching the late-afternoon sun, the panels are able to provide an extra boost when it is needed most – between 3 p.m. and 6 p.m. when energy demand is highest.

Education mission

Behind the scenes at Shedd, in a small windowless room out of sight from the stingrays, penguins, turtles and other creatures, is the brain behind the aquarium’s advanced energy system. Seven computer monitors display real-time data about the building’s overall energy consumption, the status of various pumps, water heaters and other equipment, local weather conditions and the flow of power from the rooftop solar panels.

One screen displays a graph representing the target energy consumption levels throughout the day. The goal for the operator is to try to adjust various equipment to keep overall energy consumption at or below the target.

In the first month of using the system, Shedd was able to reduce its consumption by 50,000 kWh  ( , Wengel said.

It’s an elaborate setup for an institution whose primary focus is water, not energy. But the two are deeply linked, as power plants require water for cooling and large amounts of energy are required to pump, treat and heat water for consumers.

In its pursuit of sustainability, it would have been easier for Shedd to purchase renewable energy credits that offset carbon-heavy generation from fossil fuel plants. But instead the institution spent years researching, planning, partnering and ultimately building its own unique energy system.

For Wengel, doing the legwork, the “soul searching” and the hosting of a physical system onsite is core to Shedd’s educational mission.

“We’re going to educate people about the battery,” Wengel said of the system. “We’re also going to relate it in a way that [says], ‘Someday you’re going to have a battery in your house.’”

Independent reporting on Illinois smart grid issues is made possible by a grant from the Illinois Science & Energy Innovation Foundation.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on January 31, 2017, 06:21:28 pm
Tesla Unveils World's Largest Battery Storage Plant to Reduce Reliance on Fossil Fuels   (


In an effort to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels, Tesla and Southern California Edison have unveiled a massive battery storage facility at the utility's Mira Loma substation in Ontario, California.

The project—which is being described as the largest lithium-ion battery storage project in the world—consists of 396 stacks of Tesla Powerpack units spread across 1.5 acres. The batteries can store up to 80 megawatt hours, or enough energy to power 15,000 homes for four hours.

"This project is part of our vision at Southern California Edison to take advantage of the wind and the sun, and operate a flexible grid that delivers clean energy to power our homes, our businesses and our vehicles," Kevin Payne, CEO of Southern California Edison, said at a ribbon-cutting event Monday.

"Standing here today among these Tesla Powerpacks is a great reminder of how fast technology is changing the electric power industry and the opportunities that will come with it."

While the project officially switched online on Monday it began operating in December.

"We are very excited to bring this site online," said Tesla's chief technical officer JB Straubel. "Storage is quite a new thing … and this is a different breed of battery. This is the tip of the iceberg of how much storage we'll see on the grid."

The batteries charge up when there is more renewable energy than demand, ultimately allowing customers to use clean energy during peak hours.

As the New York Times explained, California has a need for batteries to store surplus renewable energy:

"California is on track to have an overabundance of energy during the day, when its many solar panels are producing energy, but that supply drops sharply as the sun sets, precisely when demand rises, with residents heading home to use appliances and, increasingly, to charge cars.

"The state's aging nuclear plants have been closed or are being phased out, putting even more pressure on utilities to find other ways to feed the grid. Storage is a natural solution, utility executives say, helping to smooth variations in the power flow from rooftop customers and when solar falls off and conventional plants have not yet filled the gap."

Tesla CEO Elon Musk was not at the ribbon-cutting ceremony but he retweeted a company tweet in support of the project. In the clip below, Tesla touts that its new facility, which only took 94 days to install, reduces the reliance on gas peaker plants, prevents electricity shortages, provides secure energy and reduces greenhouse gases:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on February 24, 2017, 01:41:41 pm
February 24, 2017

3 More Gigafactories Coming Soon to 'Change the Way the World Uses Energy'    (

Lorraine Chow

At the grand opening of Tesla's enormous Gigafactory in July, CEO Elon Musk said he wants to build Gigafactories on several continents. He told BBC he wanted a factory "in Europe, in India, in China ... ultimately, wherever there is a huge amount of demand for the end product."

Well, it looks like Musk's factory-building plans are well underway.

The company said in its fourth-quarter investor letter on Wednesday that it is considering building up to five Gigafactories.  :o  ;D

The letter states:

"Installation of Model 3 manufacturing equipment is underway in Fremont and at Gigafactory 1, where in January, we began production of battery cells for energy storage products, which have the same form-factor as the cells that will be used in Model 3. Later this year, we expect to finalize locations for Gigafactories 3, 4 and possibly 5 (Gigafactory 2 is the Tesla solar plant in New York)."

Tesla officially flicked on Gigafactory 1's switch in January. The factory produces lithium-ion battery cells for Tesla's suite of battery storage products, the Powerwall 2 and Powerpack 2, as well as the company's mass-market electric car, the Model 3.

Gigafactory 1 is currently being built in phases so that the company and its partners can manufacture products while the building continues to expand. Construction is expected for completion by 2018, at which point the plant could claim the title of world's largest building by footprint.

The facility will also be astoundingly clean and energy efficient, as it will be powered 100 percent by renewables such as solar, wind, geothermal and will feature energy-storage technology.

The company also plans for the building to achieve net zero energy. Tesla co-founder and chief technical officer JB Straubel once explained why Tesla wanted Gigafactory operations to be completely carbon neutral:

"The Gigafactory is maybe the best example we can talk about with this. You know, from the get-go, from the first concept of this factory, we wanted to make it a net-zero facility. So, you know, the most visible thing we are doing is covering the entire site with solar power. The whole roof of the Gigafactory was designed from the beginning with solar in mind. We kept all of the mechanical equipment off the roof. We didn't put extra, sorta, penetrations through the roof that we didn't need to and it's a very, very clean surface that we can completely cover in solar. But that's not enough solar, though. So we have also gone to the surrounding hillsides that we can't use for other functions and we're adding solar to those."

According to Straubel, the Gigafactory isn't even hooked up to any natural gas pipelines:

"The other interesting thing is we wanted to manage the emissions from the Gigafactory. Solar power can do some of that, but we took kind of a radical move in the beginning and said we are not going to burn any fossil fuels in the factory. You know, zero emissions. We are going to build a zero-emissions factory—just like the car. So, instead of kind of fighting this battle in hindsight, we just said we are not even going to have a natural gas pipeline coming to the factory, so we didn't even build it. And it kind of forced the issue. When you don't have natural gas, you know, none of the engineers can say, 'Oh, but it will be more efficient, let me use just a little bit.' Sorry, we don't even have it."

In December, Tesla and Panasonic launched operations at its Buffalo, New York plant, now dubbed Gigafactory 2. The factory manufactures high-efficiency photovoltaic cells and modules for solar panels and solar glass tiles for Tesla's highly anticipated solar roof.

Tesla's factories are all part of the company's mission to accelerate the world's transition to sustainable energy.  (

In last year's climate change documentary Before The Flood, Musk takes Leonardo DiCaprio on a tour of Tesla's massive Gigafactory in Nevada. During their chat, the Tesla CEO tells the actor and famed environmentalist that it would only take 100 Gigafactories to transition "the whole world" to sustainable energy.

With at least five Gigafactories in the books, looks like Musk's plans are slowly becoming reality. For what it's worth, even DiCaprio said building one-hundred Gigafactories "sounds manageable."

Lorraine Chow is a reporter for EcoWatch.

Agelbert NOTE: Fossil Fuel Industry reaction to all the above:   (

Expect the Fossil Fuel Industry TOOLS from Trump (Tillerson, Pruitt et al) to publish "concerns" (for our own good OF COURSE  ( over the "potential for the dangerous battery pollution"  ;) from the Gigafactories  to cause "harm to human health and the environment".   ( (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on April 08, 2017, 04:29:13 pm
Eneco and Mitsubishi Corporation construct  largest battery in Europe  (

JARDELUND, 06 April 2017


Eneco and Mitsubishi Corporation (MC) are going to construct, under the name EnspireME, the largest battery system in Europe. This battery system will be located in Germany and enables the companies to supply sustainable reserve capacity to the European electricity grid. Both parties will also start a pilot project involving the storage of locally produced surplus wind energy.

In connection with the ‘Energiewende’, Germany is a frontrunner in increasing the sustainability of its energy supply. As a result, an increasing number of wind turbines and solar panels are taking over the production of electricity from existing fossil fuel power plants. However, these plants continue to play a role in the form of supplying reserve capacity that is needed to balance the power grid. The battery system will be able to take over the role of primary reserve provider and, thus, forms a sustainable alternative for the backup supplied by coal and gas fired power plants.


Eneco and MC will start the construction of the battery system in the Summer. The battery will be located next to a substation in the municipality of Jardelund in Schleswig-Holstein, close to the border with Denmark. Schleswig-Holstein is one of the leading federal states contributing strongly towards a successful ‘Energiewende’ in Germany. It is the place where electricity generated by large wind farms is collected and transmitted to other parts of Germany.The proximity of the substation has the advantage that the battery can play a role in reducing the regular loss of energy at these stations. Initially, the battery will be used for the primary reserve market, where the German transmission network operators purchase the reserve capacity they require to guarantee the 50 Hertz frequency on the grid.

[Pilot project

With the support of the German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, Eneco and MC will start a pilot project that will involve the connection of nearby wind farms to the battery system. If there is surplus capacity or an overload on the grid, these wind farms will be able to temporarily supply their electricity output to the battery system. This will not only reduce the load on the grid, but also has a financial advantage as the owners of the wind farms will be able to offer the stored electricity to the market at a more favourable moment.

Energy storage technology

The battery is a Lithium-Ion system of 48 MW and a capacity of over 50 MWh, which corresponds to the average daily energy consumption of over 5.300 German households. The battery system, including the power conversion system and controls, will be supplied and integrated by NEC Energy Solutions, a large energy storage system integrator. It is expected that the battery system will be put into operation at the end of 2017.

Hiroshi Sakuma, Group Chief Executive Officer, Mitsubishi Corporation: 'We have been strengthening our activity in the renewable energy field in order to contribute to a low-carbon society. We believe that energy storage will become a key factor, given the circumstance that energy volatility is expanding as the result of the rapid increase of renewable energy. This project is a significant step forward to the realisation of the sustainable society.'

Kees-Jan Rameau, Chief Strategic Growth Officer Eneco Group: 'Although, fortunately, the share of sustainable energy is increasing rapidly, it does pose a challenge for the energy grid. In our view, the solution to this is twofold: smart matching of supply and demand and a combination of small-scale and large-scale energy storage. Last year, we initiated the creation of a network of home batteries for consumers. In collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, we are now also making significant progress in the area of large-scale sustainable storage. Germany is a frontrunner in green development and, as such, ideal for gaining experience. This step will also provide valuable knowledge that can be applied on the Dutch market.'
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on April 11, 2017, 01:50:03 pm
Those bubbles on the seaweed fronds are oxygen produced by these amazing plants. (

.. seaweed and other algae takes up 90 percent of all plant life on Earth  (

Seaweed Could Revolutionize How We Power Our Devices (

The answer to powering our devices might have been hiding in our sushi all along  ;D. An international team of researchers has used seaweed to create a material that can enhance the performance of superconductors, lithium-ion batteries and fuel cells.


The team, from the U.S., the UK, China and Belgium, came up with the idea to mimic Murray's Law, which is a natural process within the structure of a plant's pores that pumps water or air throughout the plant to provide it energy. With Murray's law, the larger the pore, the less energy expended because the pressure is reduced, but it takes different variations in size to create a balancing act across the body of the plant and maximize energy potential. In seaweed's case, the plant has the perfect pore variation for regulating energy in real world applications.

"The introduction of the concept of Murray's Law to industrial processes could revolutionize the design of reactors with highly enhanced efficiency, minimum energy, time and raw material consumption for a sustainable future," said Bao-Lian Su, professor at the University of Cambridge and co-author of the research.

The scientists made the "Murray material" by embedding an extract of the seaweed into multiple layers of nano-fibers of zinc oxide, which created a hierarchy in the size of the pores. They believe the material can be used on rechargeable batteries, high performance gas sensing technology or even to decompose inorganic material in the oceans. (

Seaweed is a fast growing algae that grows in abundance in coastal areas. It is estimated that seaweed and other algae takes up 90 percent of all plant life on Earth, making it a very sustainable plant for energy purposes. The team believes they could safely utilize 20,000 tons of the seaweed extract per year.

The Murray material could improve capacity by 25 times compared to the current graphite-based technology being used in lithium-ion batteries. The pores in the material also allow for a smoother charge/discharge process, improving stability and extending the life of batteries or fuel cells.

"Large scale manufacturability of this porous material is possible," said co-author Tawfique Hasan, also at Cambridge. "Making it an exciting, enabling technology, with potential impact across many applications."

Graphic at link:
The zinc nano-fiber embedded with the cells of seaweed - American Chemical Society

Agelbert NOTE: The above research, particularly in regard to pore size and flow rates, is part of the REAL WORLD of thermodynamics that the fossil fuel industry pretends "does no exist" (  in their "heat, beat and treat" brute force approach to energy production. Combusting hydrocarbons is one of the most ruinously polluting ways to produce energy mankind has ever come up with. But since the polluters have been able to dump all the SOCIAL COSTS OF CARBON onto we-the-people while they use their ill gotten profits to CORRUPT our politicians, they just can't let go of their love affair with conscience free polluting for short term profit.     (

There are MANY solutions to our energy problems that continue to be willfully ignored by our government simply because the fossil fuel industry DOESN'T WANT THEM IMPLEMENTED. No, sports fans, it NEVER had absolutely anything to do with ERoEI, energy efficiency or "cheap" energy sources. It's ALWAYS been about controlling the spigot of energy available to the average person so that these fascist, government corrupting polluters can retain political totalitarian power.

Below, please find, just one of the MANY CLEAN ENERGY solutions to the polluting energy onslaught degrading our biosphere.


The idea is that multiple methods will ensure species survival. It's called putting ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT of polluting fossil fuel eggs in your energy production basket. AND, those hydrocarbons must be obtained cleanly, not through dirty drilling or mining. Only IDIOTS that defend fossil fuels as a "cheap" and "energy dense" energy source are too STUPID and GREEDY to understand that. Have a nice day.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on April 17, 2017, 06:52:30 pm
Search for the Super Battery - Documentary

Published on Apr 2, 2017

Agelbert NOTE: They're getting there.  ( (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 03, 2017, 07:48:49 pm

#Grid #Renewables #Technology

Süddeutsche Zeitung / Die Welt

Safety grid for power

Power grid operator Tennet and household power storage provider Sonnen plan to use a network of small-scale batteries to help reduce costs caused by grid bottlenecks between Germany’s windy North and the power-hungry South, reports Michael Bauchmüller in Süddeutsche Zeitung. “We want to integrate renewable power in the best possible way,” Tennet board chair Urban Keussen told the newspaper.
“We can manage that not only with copper, but also with intelligence.”
Sonnen managing director Philipp Schröder said that in a first stage, 6,000 batteries would be used to optimise the power grid. Households making their batteries available for the project, which will use blockchain encryption technology, will receive free power, according to the article. Keussen told newspaper Die Welt the use of blockchain was “the first step into a new energy world.”

Find background in the CLEW factsheet Re-dispatch costs in the German power grid.


#Grid #Renewables #Technology

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

Power grid revolution

The use of batteries to level out intermittent solar and wind generation in the Tennet and Sonnen project shows that “the Energiewende is making progress,” writes Andreas Mihm in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. “New offshore wind parks have been approved recently without a cent of eco power support, and now there is evidence for a revolution in the German power grid. For the first time, a grid operator will get access to thousands of small decentralised power storages all over Germany.

For background on the offshore auction, read the CLEW article Operators to build offshore wind farms without support payments.

#Grid #Society

dpa / Welt Online

Transmission highway SuedLink enters next stage

The preparation procedure for building Germany’s high-voltage transmission highway SuedLink has entered a crucial stage, news agency dpa reports in an article carried by Welt Online. Following submission of the sectoral planning application for SuedLink’s last segment in the southern federal state of Baden-Württemberg, German federal grid agency BNetzA can now start the formal approval procedure for the 800-kilometre-long power line meant to transfer electricity from Germany’s windy north to industrial centres in the south, the article says.
In a separate article on Welt Online, dpa reports that about 3,000 people forming a human chain in the central German state of Thuringia protested against SuedLink’s construction. The transmission highway made the federal state the “pack animal” of German energy policy, protesters lamented according to the article.

For more information, read the CLEW news digest entry Merkel on grid expansion: “We’re behind it at all levels”.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 09, 2017, 01:52:54 pm

US Energy Storage Caucus Launched to Educate Congress

May 9, 2017  By Renewable Energy World Editors        energy storage
U.S. Reps. Chris Collins (R-N.Y.) :o  ;D and Mark Takano (D-Calif.) yesterday launched the Advanced Energy Storage Caucus in Congress to educate Members of Congress regarding the benefits of storage to the U.S. electric system and investigate ways to accelerate job growth and investment in U.S. advanced energy storage industries.

The Energy Storage Association (ESA) said that Collins and Takano were joined for the launch by executives from leading utilities, developers, and manufacturers of storage technologies, including AES Energy Storage, S&C Electric, Stem Inc., and National Grid.

In addition, the caucus will periodically brief members of Congress on how energy storage is reshaping the way electricity is generated, distributed, and consumed, and how policy can remove impediments to greater use of battery storage.

"We need bipartisan solutions to help address our aging energy infrastructure," Collins said in a statement. “Energy storage technology will grow our economy and make sure American businesses can compete around the globe.”
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 09, 2017, 02:22:05 pm

New Virginia Law Expands Solar Energy Development Authority to Include Energy Storage (
May 9, 2017

By Renewable Energy World Editors     solar
Virginia Gov. Terry McAuliffe yesterday signed a bill authorizing the expansion of the state’s Solar Energy Development Authority to include energy storage.

The legislation is part of a series of bills signed by McAuliffe that promote wind, solar and energy storage technologies. (

SB 1258, introduced by Sen. Adam Ebbin, expands the purpose of the new Solar Energy and Battery Storage Development Authority to include positioning the state as a leader in research, development, commercialization, manufacturing, and deployment of energy storage technology.

The powers of the authority are expanded to include

•Promoting collaborative efforts among Virginia's public and private institutions of higher education in research, development, and commercialization efforts related to energy storage,

•Monitoring relevant developments nationally and globally,

•Identifying and working with the state’s industries and nonprofit partners.

In addition, the measure expands the size of the authority 11 to 15 members.

“Today, I am honored to sign these bills into law, furthering the great work we’re doing to support and promote the clean energy sector across the Commonwealth,” McAuliffe said at the bill signing ceremony, according to the governor’s office. “It is clear that Virginia is moving in the right direction, especially with the recent announcement of record growth in our solar industry, but there is still work to do.  Together, with our partners in the General Assembly and the private sector, I will continue to implement policies that bolster the entire clean energy industry in the Commonwealth.”
The governor’s office said that other bills pertaining to renewables that were signed by McAuliffe yesterday include:

•SB 1393, which creates a path for the development of community solar programs in the service territories of Appalachian Power Company (ApCo), Dominion, and the Electric Cooperatives.  Each utility will develop its own territory-specific program that allows citizens and businesses the ability to “subscribe” to receive electricity generated by a small centrally-located solar generation system.

•SB 1394 and HB 2303, which are identical bills, create a Small Agricultural Generators Program — a new framework for the generation of renewable energy at agricultural facilities and how that energy can be sold to utilities.

•SB 1395 increases the allowable maximum size of renewable projects to be eligible to be permitted through the state’s Permit by Rule (PBR) process from 100 MW to 125 MW.  These projects are exempt from environmental review and permitting by the State Corporation Commission. SB 1395 also exempts projects that are being built for use by a single customer of a utility from having to apply for and receive a Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity from the SCC.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 11, 2017, 01:45:34 pm
California: 'We Are Just Getting Started'   (


May 11, 2017

By Jason Deign      energy storage

If you thought California’s lead as an energy storage market might fade in the face of upstarts such as Australia or Germany, then think again. Recent moves might see new gigawatts of capacity being installed across the state by 2020.

 The most significant development was the recent reopening of California’s Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) with more than US$448m in funding dedicated to energy storage.

The cash, 79 percent of an almost $567m funding package available through 2019, is expected to create a surge in behind-the-meter energy storage deployments across the state.

Most of the storage budget is aimed at what the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) calls ‘large-scale storage,’ or systems of more than 10 kW. But 13 percent, or just over $57m, will be for residential installations.

“The incentive level for energy storage systems larger than 10 kW that do not take the investment tax credit (ITC) and all residential systems 10 kW and smaller will be set at 50 cents/watt-hour,” says the CPUC on its website.

Projects That Are Larger than 10 kW

“Projects that are larger than 10 kW and take the ITC will have a lower initial incentive rate of 36 cents/watt-hour.
“We expect that demand will exceed the amount of funding for incentives at that level very quickly, and we therefore expect incentive levels to decrease by 10 cents/watt-hour shortly after SGIP reopens.”

The new SGIP will act in addition to a provision for behind-the-meter storage that already exists within the Assembly Bill 2514 (AB 2514) mandate that has powered deployments in California so far.

The AB 2514 provision is for 200 MW of capacity, to be procured by 2020 and installed by 2024.

But the SGIP, which had its budget doubled under legislation agreed last year, “is going to blow it out of the water,” said Janice Lin, founder and executive director of the California Energy Storage Alliance (CESA).

Instrumental In Getting the SGIP to Focus on Storage

CESA was instrumental in getting the CPUC to focus the SGIP on storage, she told Energy Storage Report. Originally the program had been solely dedicated to demand response, she said.

Behind-the-meter deployments are also being boosted in California by AB 2868. This last year directed the CPUC to get the state’s three largest electrical utilities to “accelerate widespread deployment of distributed energy storage.”

In practice this will add up to 500 MW more of capacity to the system, up to 25 percent of which could be behind the meter. “We’re waiting for those utility applications,” Lin said.

On top of that, AB 2514, which is a biennial procurement program, is set to continue and is expected to mandate further utility deployments in future. But it doesn’t stop there.

This legislative session has seen no fewer than three bills emerge in the last fortnight that could each add significant further energy storage capacity to the California electricity system.

Procuring 120 MW of Energy Storage Capacity

One is a Senate Bill, SB 801, which requires the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and Southern California Edison to procure 100 MW and 20 MW, respectively, of energy storage capacity.

The procurement has been put forward on an emergency basis to reduce the impact of the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage failure.

Finally, two other bills, SB 338 and AB 1405, aim to address California’s clean peak energy problem, commonly known as the duck curve. “The neck of the duck is the most challenging portion of our net load,” explained Lin.

And it’s getting worse. This month the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) “is expected to release a new animal,” she said. “What I’ve heard from CAISO is the ramp of the new duck is shocking. The neck is huge.”

CAISO now sees storage as a key tool for dealing with challenges such as the duck curve and Aliso Canyon, she said.

If Clean Peak Energy Bills Are Implemented

If the clean peak energy bills are implemented it is unclear how much extra energy storage capacity they might add since other measures, such as demand response, might form part of any eventual package.

However, CESA roughly calculates that it could amount to “hundreds of megawatts of storage,” said Lin. “The fundamental underlying trends are very solid for storage.

“Storage is a very helpful enabler to more and more clean energy in our mix,” she said. “There is a lot going on in California right now. While California has been trailblazing, in some ways we are just getting started.”
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 11, 2017, 07:48:53 pm
Solid State Batteries For Electric Cars: A New Breakthrough By The Father of the Lithium-Ion Battery

Published on Mar 1, 2017

At 94 years old, Professor John Goodenough (the co-inventor of the modern lithium-ion battery) from the Cockrell School of Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin and his colleague Maria Helena Braga have announced a brand-new solid state battery that could seriously change the way we think about electric vehicle battery packs.

Here's why we think you should pay attention to this news -- and what this new breakthrough could mean for future electric cars.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 16, 2017, 02:43:53 pm
Vehicle-To-Grid Discharge, Even At Constant Power, Is Detrimental To EV Battery Performance, Study Finds  :(

May 16th, 2017 by James Ayre


There have long been critics of the idea of widespread use of electric vehicle (EV) vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technologies for a variety of reasons, but largely in relation to the potential damage done to EV batteries, and thus reduced battery lifespan.

New research from the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii at Manoa seems to clearly support this assertion — the extra cycling that accompanies use of an EV battery for grid balancing, even when at constant power, reduces EV battery cell performance significantly.

To be more specific, the use of an EV with V2G tech could reduce the working lifespan of an EV battery pack to under 5 years time, according to the new work.  :(  :P

The researchers note, though, that simply delaying the charging of EVs as a means of balancing the grid would have only a “negligible” effect on EV batteries, and could thus represent a better option. However, this could prove to not be the case in environments warmer than “room temperature.”

V2G Battery Degradation

( (

Agelbert COMMENT: Well, provided this is true, EV car manufacturers should use common sense and join with electric Utilities to offer EV car buyers a 10 year guarantee, WITHOUT ANY ADDED CHARGES, for replacing the used battery pack with a new one. I make the caveat about "no added charges" because the fun and games on the average lead acid battery "guarantee" is, and always was, a rip off.

Avoiding peaking costs is well worth the 10 year battery pack guarantee. In fact, if we had a sane government, they would REMOVE all the fossil fuel "subsidies" and, instead provide EV battery pack 10 year guarantee subsidies as a matter of National Security grid stability.

But common sense and logic in regard to renewable energy is rather difficult for the United Petro-States of America. (

Fossil fueler shows up with the old "not ready for prime time" baloney disguised as prudent advice: (

wattleberry  (

A useful warning to users of today's batteries but of limited relevance to their successors which, if anything, will be encouraged by the disclosure of another flaw awaiting correction in a key component of a product which is still at a very early stage of evolution.

agelbert > wattleberry  

Like what, the tendrils that grow and short them? We know about that. The battery development is quite mature, thank you very much. It's the fossil fuel polluting machine called an internal combustion engine that never got past the profit over people and planet stage. Gas stations will soon go the way of the dodo bird too.

The only issue with batteries of any significance that needs improvement is rapid replacement technology. We NOW have access to electricity in FAR more places than we have access to gasoline. All we need is a small "spare" battery pack that can take us home or too a quick pack replacement location nearby if our main battery pack fails.

eveee  (

This discussion needs more clarity. People are defining whats better in odd ways. How do we define it? By how much the EV owner saves in retail electricity costs vs how much the value of the car is reduced by battery degeneration?

I tend to feel V2G doesn't make sense, because a car is not just a battery. However, when the battery is used more, the value of the car reduces.

If you want V2G, get a PowerWall instead. Then you are only reducing the value of the PowerWall, not the car.

A PowerWall is 6500. A Model S is > 65000. 10x.

Now on the other hand, we are only looking at one storage scenario, load shifting.

Already, California is starting a demand response program that pays users not to use electricity during peaks and allow the utility to dial back demand when it needs to.

That is an area for an EV owner to benefit by allowing charging to be controlled or timed to miss expensive peak demand times. That makes total sense. (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on May 22, 2017, 02:12:24 pm

Listen Up: What Home Owners Need To Know About Battery Storage Systems  (

May 22, 2017

Since the sun does not shine at night we need a way to store daytime-generated solar energy. Net metering is an elegant and 100% efficient way to shift excess solar power, but that system will not work at high solar penetration levels. Never mind the fact that utilities are loath to allow their customers to generate electricity for less than it costs them to deliver this power.

As a result, battery storage is on the minds of almost all new solar customers. Storage technology, incentives, favorable electric rates and control software are all evolving rapidly. There are currently about a dozen companies with battery storage systems designed for use with rooftop solar. Like peanut butter and chocolate, many solar companies are starting to offer battery storage systems along with their solar systems.

My advice is to proceed with caution. Even though off-grid battery storage systems have been available for years, we are at the very early stages of grid-tied solar combined with battery storage. From a hardware standpoint, battery storage costs are plummeting, and new inverters/charge controllers are being developed. Perhaps more importantly, software that will efficiently interact with solar, batteries, the grid and your home energy consumption still has limited functionality. For more about the practicalities of home battery storage, Listen Up to this week’s Energy Show on Renewable Energy World.


About the Energy Show

As energy costs consume more and more of our hard-earned dollars, we as consumers really start to pay attention. But we don't have to resign ourselves to $5/gallon gas prices, $200/month electric bills and $500 heating bills. There are literally hundreds of products, tricks and techniques that we can use to dramatically reduce these costs — very affordably.

The Energy Show on Renewable Energy World is a weekly 20-minute podcast that provides tips and advice to reduce your home and business energy consumption. Every week we'll cover topics that will help cut your energy bill, explain new products and technologies in plain English, and cut through the hype so that you can make smart and cost-effective energy choices.

About Your Host

Barry Cinnamon is a long-time advocate of renewable energy and is a widely recognized solar power expert. In 2001 he founded Akeena Solar — which grew to become the largest national residential solar installer by the middle of the last decade with over 10,000 rooftop customers coast to coast. He partnered with Westinghouse to create Westinghouse Solar in 2010, and sold the company in 2012.

His pioneering work on reducing costs of rooftop solar power systems include Andalay, the first solar panel with integrated racking, grounding and wiring; the first UL listed AC solar panel; and the first fully “plug and play” AC solar panel. His current efforts are focused on reducing the soft costs for solar power systems, which cause system prices in the U.S. to be double those of Germany.

Although Barry may be known for his outspoken work in the solar industry, he has hands-on experience with a wide range of energy saving technologies.  He's been doing residential energy audits since the punch card days, developed one of the first ground-source heat pumps in the early ‘80s, and always abides by the Laws of Thermodynamics.  ;D

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on June 06, 2017, 11:00:34 pm
Big batteries can store power when the sun doesn't shine

Lloyd Alter (@lloydalter) Energy / Renewable Energy June 5, 2017
pumped storage
© Andrew Roberts/ New York Times


What is the difference between a battery and a power source? It is sometimes hard to distinguish. If you build a dam and capture the energy of falling water, it is considered power generation from a power source, namely gravity. But if you pump water up a hill and store it behind a dam until you need it, that's acting as a battery; it is not making energy, it is just storing it. It is a really important distinction; it is one of the reasons we are not fans of hydrogen, considering it more a battery than a fuel.

Diane Cardwell of The New York Times writes about The Biggest, Strangest "Batteries" and explains how really, anything that can store energy and release it later is a battery.  (

Full article:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on July 09, 2017, 02:29:22 pm
Tesla Wins Contract for South Australia Energy Storage Project  (

July 7, 2017

By Perry Williams, Bloomberg


Elon Musk’s Tesla Inc. has won a tender to supply what the billionaire says is the world’s largest lithium-ion battery to back up the state of South Australia’s blackout-plagued power grid, making good on a promise first made over Twitter four months ago to help solve the state’s energy woes.

Tesla will provide 100 MW of storage by Dec. 1, pairing it with a wind farm at Hornsdale north of Adelaide operated by France’s Neoen, according to a statement on Friday from South Australian Premier Jay Weatherill. The system, which will have capacity of 129 MWh, will provide enough power for more than 30,000 homes, Tesla said in a separate statement.

We’re talking about something that’s three times as powerful as the next biggest battery installation in the world,” Musk told reporters in Adelaide.

Musk had previously promised to build the system and get it working within 100 days of a contract being signed or Tesla would provide it free, a vow he backed up on Friday.


“We actually insisted when doing the contract that we be held to the 100 days or it’s free,” Musk said. “That’s what we said publicly, that’s what we’re going to do.” (

full article:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 07, 2017, 12:40:13 pm

In the year of 1936 during the middle of summer, an ancient tomb was discovered during construction of a new railway line near Bagdad city in Iraq. The relics found in that tomb were about 2000 years old. Among these relics, there were some clay jars or vessels which were sealed at the top with pitch. An iron rod, surrounded by a cylindrical tube made of wrapped copper sheet was projected out from this sealed top.

When these pots were filled with an acidic liquid, they produced a potential difference of around 2 volts between the iron and copper. These clay jars are suspected to be 2000 year old battery cells.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 07, 2017, 02:22:53 pm

In the year of 1936 during the middle of summer, an ancient tomb was discovered during construction of a new railway line near Bagdad city in Iraq. The relics found in that tomb were about 2000 years old. Among these relics, there were some clay jars or vessels which were sealed at the top with pitch. An iron rod, surrounded by a cylindrical tube made of wrapped copper sheet was projected out from this sealed top.

When these pots were filled with an acidic liquid, they produced a potential difference of around 2 volts between the iron and copper. These clay jars are suspected to be 2000 year old battery cells. (

This area of investigation has always fascinated me. We are ever-so-smug in our presentism, that the ancients were a bunch of ignorant rubes, but there are enough discoveries found in the wrong place to indicate that we are wrong.

And then of course is the question of where the knowledge came from


Yep. Your observation has some very important nuggets of wisdom that most people do not even begin to undertand, never mind taking to heart in order to realize how delibertely dumbed down our society is.

The most important part of your obervation is the fact that people are indoctrinated to BE smug about our incredibly, STUPID, suicidally destructive society.

Smugness breeds the overcondence that always precedes dumb, and sometines trajic, errors in judgement.

We don't need to go back to ancient times to see that at work now. Tesla made it quite clear in the early 20th century that we DID NOT NEED to use fossil fuels for ANYTHING because energy was plentiful. But ignorant, brain washed people claim cheap, clean energy, especially those who have eaten the happy talk for the fossil fuel liars and crooks, as advocated by Nikola Tesla (and Thomas Edison too, by the way) is a "pipe dream".  ::)

Smug, brain washed people that actually believe the BALONEY that we "owe" our standard of living to our "loyal servants, the fossil fuel industry", when there is NO QUESTION that the microscope (and the discovery of germs that cause disease) is the REAL REASON for the human population explosion, will continue to wallow in their stupidity until it is too late. Personal hygiene is the CAUSE of the human population explosion, not the fossil fuel based "economy".

The ancients certainly were not ignorant rubes. Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison weren't rubes either.



Before Edison said the following, he had gone on record over a decade earlier clearly stating that hydrocarbon fuels for internal combustion engines were INFERIOR to ethanol BECAUSE of all the waste heat and resultant added engine wear. Ethanol only engines would be TWO THIRDS lighter than hydrocarbon powered engines because ethanol runs cool (because it carries it's own oxygen with it causing TOTALLY EVEN BURNING), as well as being renewable and polluting less. And it is also propaganda mendacity out there that claims we would "cut into world food supply by growing ethanol crops".   (

But telling bold face crocodile tear laden lies has never stopped the brain washers that so many here smugly worship.   (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 07, 2017, 05:22:10 pm
Agelbert NOTE: The payback on this new super-capacitor is about nine years. Some will claim that is too much. Those who do are ignorant fools who do not GET the fact that COST of using fossil fuels is the Sixth Mass Extinction. You CANNOT EVER GET ANY "PAY BACK" FROM fossil fuel and nuclear POLLUTING ENERGY SOURCES!

It is amazing how STUPID people can be when they irrationally cling to the unsustainable fossil fuel powered status quo. The product below is NOT "pie in the energy sky". They are manufacturing it NOW. It WORKS in tiny devices and in scale all the way to an electric bus and even utility level storage solutions.

Consequently, this super-cap will be fought TOOTH AND NAIL by the fossil fuelers because it DESTROYS all their Renewable Energy electric powered device hand wringing about "slow charging times". Yes, you will probably need to "fill your tank" with charge more often than filling your gasoline tank. But this small inconvenience is justified considering you DO NOT EVER POLLUTE and can recharge in 30 SECONDS. IOW, you can stop for a cup of coffee or a bathroom break and keep going as FAR AS YOU WANT TO GO.

NO MORE "range anxiety" on EVs means the DEATH of hydrocarbon fueled polluting engines for transportation. GOOD!

This super-cap technology IS NOT "ten years away", as some IDIOT(s) may try to claim here. But, it may be delayed by fossil fuel loving CROOKS AND LIARS that corrupt and pollute the US Government and our country. So, Europe and china will probably be using this technology for EVs much sooner than the backward banana republic called the USA. (

The Fuel Tank of Tomorrow - A Super Capacitor?  (


Published on Dec 9, 2016

KiloWatt Labs CEO Omer Ghani explains in the above interview, filmed at the IDTechEX Show!, that his company has overcome these challenges and has begun shipping large-scale, super capacitor-based energy storage solutions for applications such as microgrid, renewable, utility and mobility. He indicates their solution is a cost-competitive replacement for traditional battery approaches,

Read more at:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 07, 2017, 08:05:34 pm
Agelbert NOTE: If this genius inventor, Lonnie Johnon (, had been given the funding he needs, we would no longer have ANY fossil fuel use in our WORLD, not just our country. And that is probably why (this talk is THREE YEARS OLD!) he has had so much difficulty obtaining the multi-million dollar funding he needs to mass produce and market his engine (already recognized as the most efficient engine ever invented!) and battery technology inventions. (

Revolutionary designs for energy alternatives: Lonnie Johnson at TEDxAtlanta

TEDx Talks

Published on Jun 3, 2014

Through a combination of scientific establishment and independent inventor credentials, Lonnie Johnson is creating green technologies that will revolutionize our approach to energy solutions.

About TEDx, x = independently organized event

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)


The Fossil Fuelers DID THE Clean Energy  Inventions suppressing, Climate Trashing, human health depleting CRIME,   but since they have ALWAYS BEEN liars and conscience free crooks, they are trying to AVOID   DOING THE TIME or     PAYING THE FINE!     Don't let them get away with it! Pass it on!    (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 08, 2017, 01:29:37 pm
Agelbert NOTE: The payback on this new super-capacitor is about nine years. Some will claim that is too much. Those who do are ignorant fools who do not GET the fact that COST of using fossil fuels is the Sixth Mass Extinction. You CANNOT EVER GET ANY "PAY BACK" FROM fossil fuel and nuclear POLLUTING ENERGY SOURCES!

It is amazing how STUPID people can be when they irrationally cling to the unsustainable fossil fuel powered status quo. The product below is NOT "pie in the energy sky". They are manufacturing it NOW. It WORKS in tiny devices and in scale all the way to an electric bus and even utility level storage solutions.

Consequently, this super-cap will be fought TOOTH AND NAIL by the fossil fuelers because it DESTROYS all their Renewable Energy electric powered device hand wringing about "slow charging times". Yes, you will probably need to "fill your tank" with charge more often than filling your gasoline tank. But this small inconvenience is justified considering you DO NOT EVER POLLUTE and can recharge in 30 SECONDS. IOW, you can stop for a cup of coffee or a bathroom break and keep going as FAR AS YOU WANT TO GO.

NO MORE "range anxiety" on EVs means the DEATH of hydrocarbon fueled polluting engines for transportation. GOOD!

This super-cap technology IS NOT "ten years away", as some IDIOT(s) may try to claim here. But, it may be delayed by fossil fuel loving CROOKS AND LIARS that corrupt and pollute the US Government and our country. So, Europe and China will probably be using this technology for EVs much sooner than the backward banana republic called the USA. (

The Fuel Tank of Tomorrow - A Super Capacitor?  (


Published on Dec 9, 2016

KiloWatt Labs CEO Omer Ghani explains in the above interview, filmed at the IDTechEX Show!, that his company has overcome these challenges and has begun shipping large-scale, super capacitor-based energy storage solutions for applications such as microgrid, renewable, utility and mobility. He indicates their solution is a cost-competitive replacement for traditional battery approaches,

Read more at: (
The super capacitors have real potential. It will be interesting to watch them roll out and see where they go.  The arrays on off grid systems are getting larger all the time faster then the battery banks   the super caps might be a good bridge between the fast changing solar availability and the batteries slow take up of charge.
Interesting times.

True. Notice what KiloWatt Labs CEO Omer Ghani said in the video after explaining, step by step, that they had ALREADY overcome the super-cap rapid discharge problems along with obtaining lithium ion batttery energy density compatibility without the high lithium ion price:
"We have to get people to believe us."  :o

Omer Ghani has the product, has the evidence that the product works and is cheaper than lithium ion battery technology at the same or greater energy density, YET, they have trouble getting people to believe them! THAT is prima facie evidence of how incredibly brain washed our society has become (at the level of ENGINEERS!), to the point where they take as "thermodynamics gospel" the biosphere math challenged ERoEI double talk (happy talk for fosssil fuels and "it's just too costly" for clean energy sources), published for the last half century BY THE FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY (Yep, THEY put those numbers, including thermodynamics and fluid mechanics assumptions, in the engineering textbooks! Amory Lovins of the Rocky Mountain Institute has proven by experimentation that a lot of those numbers are WRONG!), as the "standard" for credibility and doability. 

No wonder it is so hard to get out of the death grip of the fossil fuel industry destructive influence on our biosphere and democracy. The idiots smokin' the fossil fuel baloney accuse everybody advocating new inventions that enhance clean energy use of "pipe dreams" or "smokin' somethin'". Ridicule is the FIRST tool used to to try to defend the unsustainable status quo. The ERoEI polluting energy sources happy talk comes next. The fossil Fuel Industry century of propaganda BULLSHIT has worked. Let us hope more people wake up to the stupidity of believing absolutely anything coming from the polluters. We are all dead if we do not destroy the fossil fuel industry VERY, VERY soon.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 10, 2017, 02:53:58 pm
Agelbert NOTE: Israel has finally demonstrated a tremendous capacity for the obvious.  ;) ;D  I mean, DUH, it's hotter than a pistol over there with SUN, SUN and MORE SUN baking the stuffing out of the plant life, the animals, the bugs and the people for at least the last 2,000 YEARS and more. ( Pumped storage is the ultimate low maintenace cost, base load level, INSTANT on demand, Renewable Energy Storage medium. And putting a water surface where there is a lot of desert increases the relative humidity in the surrounding area, thereby aiding in plant life proliferation and desert greening. Yeah, I know, who coulda knowd?( 

It has never ceased to amaze me how so many gooberments all over the world can "justify" taxing we-the-people to build pipelines hundreds of miles long to move hydrocarbon CRAP from here to there, over ALL KINDS of terrain, but somehow never seem to be been able to DO THAT with ocean OR fresh water UPHILL (except for the extremely short pipes right next to dams that have some minuscule pumped storage equipment).  ( The fossil fuel industry will indignantly claim they pay to build the pipelines, not the gooberment. That is a very clever LIE. In 1987 our fossil fuel gooberment gave the lie to that half truth, but most people, OF COURSE, are not aware of that, thanks to all that "SILENCE" from the mainstream media. (

Better late than never, I suppose.

GE To Build 344 Megawatt Kokhav Hayarden Hydro Pumped Storage Station In Israel

August 10th, 2017 by Joshua S Hill


GE Renewable Energy has landed the contract to supply and build the 344-megawatt Kokhav Hayarden hydro pumped storage station in Israel, which is expected to help stabilize the country’s electricity grid.

On Tuesday, GE Renewable Energy revealed that it had booked a turnkey contract with Israeli utility Star Pumped Storage, in which GE will design, manufacture, supply, and install all the necessary electro-mechanical and hydro-mechanical equipment for the 344 MW (megawatt) Kokhav Hayarden hydro pumped storage station. GE will also complete a balance of plant for the two 172 MW pumped-storage units, as well as provide 20 years of operation and maintenance for the project.

The Kokhav Hayarden project will see development take 52 months, and involve the construction of two reservoirs, and is expected to be commissioned in 2021.


Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 21, 2017, 03:09:16 pm
ICE made with excess Renewable Energy (or during off peak hours) is an excellent "energy battery" to provide cooling during hot temperatures.  (  (

“Ice Battery” Technology Set To Cool Australian Homes & Cut Peak Power Demand

August 21st, 2017 by Guest Contributor

Originally published on RenewEconomy.

By Sophie Vorrath


US-made thermal “ice battery” energy storage technology that could dramatically change the way people cool their homes in summer – potentially cutting household peak power consumption by up to 95% – is poised to take on the Australian market, through a distribution deal with local solar hot water company Apricus.


California-based Ice Energy inked an agreement, in June, making the Melbourne-based Apricus the exclusive distributor of all its thermal energy storage products in Australia, covering all market segments, including utilities, commercial and industrial, and residential.

The company is best-known for its commercial and industrial Ice Bear technology, which works alongside air conditioning units by freezing water at off-peak periods, or when excess solar or wind power is available, and using the “ice battery” to provide power-free cooling during on-peak periods.   (

Full article:    (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 21, 2017, 11:57:45 pm
ICE made with excess Renewable Energy (or during off peak hours) is an excellent "energy battery" to provide cooling during hot temperatures.  (  (

“Ice Battery” Technology Set To Cool Australian Homes & Cut Peak Power Demand

August 21st, 2017 by Guest Contributor

Originally published on RenewEconomy.

By Sophie Vorrath


US-made thermal “ice battery” energy storage technology that could dramatically change the way people cool their homes in summer – potentially cutting household peak power consumption by up to 95% – is poised to take on the Australian market, through a distribution deal with local solar hot water company Apricus.


California-based Ice Energy inked an agreement, in June, making the Melbourne-based Apricus the exclusive distributor of all its thermal energy storage products in Australia, covering all market segments, including utilities, commercial and industrial, and residential.

The company is best-known for its commercial and industrial Ice Bear technology, which works alongside air conditioning units by freezing water at off-peak periods, or when excess solar or wind power is available, and using the “ice battery” to provide power-free cooling during on-peak periods.   (

Full article:    (

It's a great idea. Storage is still our Achilles heel for renewables.  Off grid especially.  The arrays are getting bigger and bigger with no way of using mid summer peak production.  The industry is also playing with electric hot water for summer use.  Gas in winter.  They are are all batteries really.
Cheers,  David B

Yep!   (

Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 29, 2017, 04:21:41 pm
Diamonds Are A Battery’s Best Friend — Potential Lithium-Ion Battery Breakthrough

August 28th, 2017 by Steve Hanley


Dendrites are the enemy of lithium-ion batteries. As ions transfer back and forth between the anode and the cathode in those batteries, they can leave behind tendril-like buildups called dendrites. Similar to stalactites that form inside a cave, these battery buildups (dendrites) are one of the main causes of lithium battery malfunction.

Lithium is the ideal material for cathodes in terms of energy storage potential, but pure lithium cathodes suffer from significant dendrite formations. To solve that issue, battery makers have started blending the lithium with graphene. The resulting compound inhibits the formation of dendrites but also significantly reduces the energy storage capacity of the cathode. A pure lithium cathode is capable of storing 10 times as much electrical energy as a cathode made of lithium and graphene.

Researchers at Drexel University, working closely with colleagues at Tsinghua University in Beijing and Hauzhong University of Science and Technology in Wuhan, China, may have found a way to inhibit the formation of dendrites and allow cathodes to be made with a higher percentage of lithium. Their discovery involves adding nanosized diamonds to the electrolyte inside the battery.

On August 25, Professor Yury Gogotsi and his research team from the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Drexel published their research in the journal Nature Communications. Entitled “Nanodiamonds Suppress Growth of Lithium Dendrites,” it describes how diamond particles 10,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair curtail the electrochemical deposits that form dendrites.

Agelbert NOTE: The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), is also commonly known as a micron. One μm equals one millionth of a metre (or one thousandth of a millimetre, 0.001 mm, or about 0.000039 inch). The width of a single human hair ranges from approximately 10 to 200 μm.

Human Hair


Full article:  (
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on August 30, 2017, 01:33:43 pm

Double Tesla Powerwall Installation — Lessons Learned (CleanTechnica Exclusive) (

August 30th, 2017 by Kyle Field
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on September 30, 2017, 03:58:53 pm
Tesla Sends Hundreds of Batteries to Puerto Rico  ( 

Tesla is sending its Powerwall system to Puerto Rico as the island deals with widespread power loss in the wake of Hurricane Maria.

According to Electrek, the company has been quietly shipping hundreds of battery packs to be paired with solar panels to Puerto Rico ever since the storm cleared.

Fortune reported that Tesla employees are currently on the U.S. territory installing the batteries and repairing solar systems, as well as coordinating efforts with local organizations.

Much of the island's 3.4 million American citizens are currently without power and disconnected from modes of communication. Officials estimate that some areas will not see their power restored for months. As Climate Nexus pointed out, "the future of the island's bankrupt and corrupt utility and its fossil-fuel-heavy colonial legacy are now top of mind as experts and officials begin to tackle the best way to restore power and rebuild the island's power grid."

While there is still a long way to go rebuild, Tesla's batteries will help enable the island's generation of clean and renewable solar energy in the interim and in the future.   (

The company previously made headlines for helping Model S and Model X owners in Florida escape Hurricane Irma by extending the battery range of its cars.

Tesla CEO Elon Musk has also personally donated $250,000 to the relief effort, Electrek noted.   (

A number of companies and business leaders have contributed to hurricane relief efforts. Fellow billionaire mogul Richard Branson, who faced two damaging hurricanes in a row from his home in the British Virgin Islands, has met with government representatives from Britain and the U.S. to set up a green fund to rebuild the hurricane-wrecked Caribbean.

"As part of that fund we want to make sure that the Caribbean moves from dirty energy to clean energy," Branson also told Thomson Reuters Foundation.

"If all that money could be invested in clean energy, in powering the world by the sun and by the wind, where we won't have to suffer these awful events in the future, how much better than having to patch up people's houses after they've been destroyed?" the Virgin Group founder said.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 03, 2017, 03:02:33 pm

Scanning electron microscope images show an anode of asphalt, graphene nanoribbons and lithium at left, and the same material is shown without lithium at right. Credit: Rice University.[/caption]
You could say these researchers took a faster road.  (

Scientists add asphalt to lithium batterius that charge up to 20 times faster  :o  ;D



Just a touch of asphalt is enough for high-capacity lithium metal batteries to charge 10 to 20 times faster than the commercially available lithium-ion variety. Additionally, the novel batteries last longer and are safer than current alternatives.

Full article:

Agelbert NOTE:
Off the shelf Lithium ion batteries now use carbon anodes, so this modification is not that big or expensive of a change. That said, I am a bit skeptical because faster charging does not give any guarantee of avoiding dendrite formation that degrades the batteries. The scientists claim the asphalt doping prevents dendrite formation. Maybe during the charge itself, but what about while it is sitting? I am not convinced by their assurances. Repeated faster charging might even cause the dendrites to grow faster, so I will adopt a wait and see attitude in regard to this innovation.
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on October 03, 2017, 11:46:03 pm
New Anode In Toshiba SCiB Battery Adds 200 Miles Of Range In 6 Minutes  :o  ;D

October 3rd, 2017 by Steve Hanley

Full article:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on November 22, 2017, 07:50:19 pm

Vanadium Flow Batteries for Cost-Effective Energy Storage: An Interview with Angelo D’Anzi, CTO of StorEn Technologies

November 21st, 2017 by Sponsored Content


How can you achieve such a low cost per kWh? ???

StorEn TechnologyCost is crucial for the adoption of energy storage. Our work is about bringing evolution to the technology with the objectives to improve performance as a way to drive down costs. We developed a disruptive battery technology based on both chemical and engineering solutions, leading to a 50% cost reduction. We are targeting a price of $400/kWh with a 25 year duration with no decay.  :o  (

The great breakthrough is our innovative high-power electrodes made with nanomaterials and a proprietary functionalization process. With this innovation we have doubled power density over traditional batteries, while running at low pressure.

The ability to run at low pressure means that less of the battery’s own energy is required to run the pumps, hence round-trip efficiency is increased. Additionally, duration of the battery is also increased. To support the electrochemical activity, we couple our Hi-Power Nano-Structured Carbon Electrode to our MULTIGRID™ multipoint flow distribution to deliver an increase in power in excess of 50%.

We also wanted to make a battery that was virtually maintenance-free, like a car battery, for trouble-free operations and reduced Total Costs of Ownership. We developed two proprietary systems, RESAFE™ and EQUILEVELS™. These two systems support a battery that is virtually maintenance-free by eliminating service activities.

Our battery can be monitored remotely with our built-in BMS (Battery Management System). Therefore we implement a shift from scheduled on-site inspections to a maintenance-on-demand model. For example, if one of our batteries was installed in a remote telecommunications tower for power back-up, remote monitoring can reduce or eliminate the need for periodic on-site visits, which can translate in significant cost savings.

Full article:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on November 24, 2017, 02:09:36 pm
Tesla Completes World’s Largest Li-ion Battery (129 MWh) In South Australia (#NotFree)
( (

November 23rd, 2017 by James Ayre



Tesla has now finished construction work on the 129 megawatt-hour (MWh) energy storage facility that it was contracted to build in South Australia, the government of the region has revealed.

Full article:
Title: Re: Batteries
Post by: AGelbert on December 23, 2017, 04:33:09 pm
Agelbert NOTE: The significant thing about this EV service is that they use a new type of battery technology (solid electrolyte) that is, for all practical purposes, impervious to fire from overheating or violent penetration during a crash. Learn more about this exciting new Lithium Metal Polymer (LMP®) battery technology  ( below.

blueSG network of 1,000 shared electric Bluecar vehicles in Singapore (


Launched in the year of 2017, BlueSG offers a new smart and affordable mobility option to all Singaporeans, complementing public transport.

BlueSG members will have access to a network of 1,000 shared electric Bluecar vehicles, 24/7, at self-service stations located in public housing, city center and commercial estates around Singapore. The service is point to point, which means there’s no need to return the car to your starting point, nor to bear the cost of maintenance or insurance of a own vehicle.
The BlueSG service will be available to anyone over 21 years of age with a valid driver’s license.

BlueSG is a subsidiary of the Bolloré Group which has launched the world’s largest and most successful car sharing, Autolib’ in Paris. . BlueSG will become the world’s second largest EV car sharing service.


A Request for Information (RFI) was issued in 2014 by the Land Transport Authority of Singapore (LTA) and Economic Development Board (EDB) and received proposals from 13 major consortia. Bolloré Group was selected for the quality of its proposal which complemented the public transport network, its strong track record – 6 years of successful implementation in Paris, and its commitment to Singapore.

On June 30, 2016, Singapore and the Bolloré Group signed the agreement that demonstrated the Group’s commitment to fully support Singapore’s public transport policy, through the creation of alternative and environmentally-friendly transportation solutions to the traditional car.

In December 2017, BlueSG car sharing service will officially be launched with an estimate of 30 stations and 80 Bluecars.

Under the agreement, the car-sharing programme will eventually include 500 stations equipped with 2,000 charging points. Of these, 20 per cent (or 400 charging points) will be for public use. The first fleet of Bluecars is also currently being commissioned in Singapore and will be part of the 1,000 strong EV fleet in the future.


BlueSG is offering a one-way and all-electric car sharing service thanks to its Bluecar vehicle equipped with Lithium Metal Polymer (LMP®) batteries from Blue Solutions, a Bolloré subsidiary as BlueSG.

LMP® technology is the culmination of an ambitious research and development program started more than twenty years ago. Made of thin films of material produced using extrusion techniques perfected by the Bolloré Group, LMP® batteries offer high energy density while ensuring safety of use. They provide unrivaled autonomy and excellent performance in all weather conditions. They are dry batteries (meaning “entirely solid”), which gives them numerous advantages, particularly in terms of safety. Solid electrolytes effectively reduce local pollution risks in the event of an accident or damage to the integrity of the battery pack. The LMP® batteries contain no solvents, no rare earth metals, and no cobalt.(

These batteries can fulfill the needs of many different markets and meet the two primary challenges of the energy transition: developing clean transportation and smart energy management. Blue Solutions holds the intellectual property rights allowing it to manufacture and market batteries based on LMP® technology.


Thanks to the LMP® technology, the Bolloré Group decided to develop mobility (car sharing and electric vehicles) and stationary applications to address the environmental concerns. The Group ambition is to go further in the development of electro mobile solutions in particular thanks to its subsidiary that opened its new office in Singapore in September 2017.

Indeed, in addition to the fleet of 100% electric cars and charging points, the Bolloré Group is also establishing a new R&D center for Asia in Singapore, and an innovation center for partners to develop, test, and implement technological innovations in the mobility, data analysis and batteries.

Finally, the Bolloré Group also aims to deploy in the city-state and in Asia other modes of public transport, such as the Bluebus and the Bluetram equipped with supercapacitors. All of these would help create over 250 jobs in the country.