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Topic Summary

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: May 17, 2018, 02:11:02 pm »



Time-Lapse: World’s Most Powerful ⚡ Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off Scotland

May 16, 2018 by gCaptain

Photo: Vattenfall

A time-lapse video has been posted online showing last months installation of the world’s most power wind turbine at Vattenfall’s European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre located just off the north-east coast of Scotland in Aberdeen Bay.

The turbine is the first of 11 to be deployed at the “ground-breaking” facility and one of two turbines at the wind farm that have been modified to generate 8.8MW of clean energy from the less powerful but still impressive 8.4MW versions.

Vattenfall says the installation, which took place on April 9, marks the first time an 8.8MW model has been deployed commercially in the offshore wind industry.

Together with the nine 8.4MW turbines, the European Offshore Wind Deployment Centres (EOWDC) will have an output to 93.2MW, equivalent to 70% of Aberdeen’s domestic electricity demand or approximately 134,128 tonnes of CO2 per year.

MHI Vestas has specially designed the V164-8.4 MW and V164-8.8 MW turbines which all have a tip height of 191 meters. Each blade is 80m long and the 164m rotor has a circumference larger than that of the London Eye’s.

EOWDC project director at Vattenfall, Adam Ezzamel, said: “The first turbine installation is a significant achievement and credit to the diligence and engineering know-how of the project team and contractors. For it to be one of the 8.8MW models makes it an even more momentous moment because it further endorses the EOWDC as a world-class hub of offshore wind innovation.”

The turbines were transported from Esbjerg to Aberdeen by Swire Blue Ocean’s wind farm installation vessel, the Pacific Orca, which lifted the turbines into position on the previously-installed foundations.

Check out the time-lapse below:


http://gcaptain.com/time-lapse-worlds-most-powerful-offshore-wind-turbine-installed-off-scotland/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: May 04, 2018, 09:32:29 pm »

US Wind Development Surges As Pipeline Exceeds 30 Gigawatts

May 4th, 2018 by Joshua S Hill

SNIPPET:

The demand for US wind energy surged through the first quarter of 2018, pushing the country’s wind development pipeline to over 33 gigawatts (GW), according to the American Wind Energy Association, which tracked new announcements of over 5,500 megawatts (MW).

The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) published its US Wind Industry First Quarter 2018 Market Report this week, highlighting the continued demand for “affordable, reliable” wind energy across the United States. Specifically, AWEA tracked 3,560 MW worth of signed Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) by utility and non-utility customers — the strongest quarter for PPAs AWEA has seen since it began tracking them in 2013. AWEA also tracked new project announcements worth 5,523 MW for the first quarter, pushing the amount of wind power capacity in various stages of development and construction to a total of 33,449 MW — a 40% year-over-year increase and the highest level AWEA has seen since it has been tracking both categories in 2016.

“Word is out that wind power is an excellent source of affordable, reliable and clean energy,” said Tom Kiernan, CEO of AWEA. “Our industry is consistently growing the wind project pipeline as leading companies, including utilities and brands like AT&T and Nestle, keep placing orders. Strong demand for wind power is fueling an economic engine supporting a record 105,500 U.S. wind jobs in farm and factory towns across the nation.”

However, it is also worth looking at the country’s cumulative and quarterly additions, which shows that the last few years have actually seen a decline in yearly wind capacity additions, and fluctuating quarterly figures as well.

US Annual and Cumulative Wind Power Capacity Growth


Full article with more graphics:


https://cleantechnica.com/2018/05/04/us-wind-development-surges-as-pipeline-exceeds-30-gigawatts/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 26, 2018, 09:51:22 pm »



World’s Most Powerful Wind Turbines to Be Installed Offshore Belgium

April 25, 2018 by gCaptain

world's largest wind turbine File Photo: MHI Vestas

MHI Vestas has been awarded a contract to install the world’s most powerful offshore wind turbines off the coast of Belgium.

The installation of the record-setting 9.5 MW turbines is planned for late 2019 at the Northwester 2 offshore wind farm in the North Sea.

The 224 MW Northwester 2 project is the fourth collaboration between Parkwind and MHI Vestas. The wind farm will comprise 23 turbines and provide enough clean energy to power 220,000 Belgian homes.

“The Northwester 2 timing and general schedule is very challenging in the light of the timing wanted by the Belgian government. This challenging timeline has played an important role in the choice for MHI Vestas as turbine supplier having the capability of delivering the V164-9.5 MW. Parkwind is very delighted to have MHI Vestas for the fourth time as a partner,” commented the co-CEO’s of Parkwind, Eric Antoons & François Van Leeuw.

The conditional order announcement, which includes a service agreement, comes as the government has recently announced it will double offshore wind capacity in Belgian territorial waters, up to 4 GW by 2025.

The V164-9.5 MW from MHI Vestas Offshore Wind is the most powerful and commercially available wind turbine in the world. With blades that are 80 m in length, one turbine can power 9,500 Belgian homes.

Parkwind today operates 552MW in the Belgian territorial waters and has a pipeline of another 554MW offshore in Belgium and Ireland.

http://gcaptain.com/worlds-most-powerful-wind-turbines-to-be-installed-offshore-belgium/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 26, 2018, 01:56:22 pm »



Siemens Gamesa To Repower 508 Megawatts ⚡ Of US Wind 💨 💫

April 26th, 2018 by Joshua S Hill

Spanish wind energy giant Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy has been awarded the contract to repower three wind farms in the United States for a total of 508 megawatts (MW), extending the lifespan and reliability of projects which would otherwise have reached their life’s end.

Siemens Gamesa announced on Wednesday that it had been awarded two separate contracts with US utility NextEra Energy Resources to repower three wind farms across Texas for a total capacity of 508 MW. The deal confirms the company as one of the world’s leading wind energy operations and maintenance (O&M) companies, a market which will only continue to evolve and grow in importance over the next decades. In total, Siemens Gamesa has 55 gigawatts (GW) under service around the world.

Indian Mesa Wind Energy Center

The first of the new contracts signed between Siemens Gamesa and NextEra is for the repowering of 362 of Vestas’ V47 wind turbines at the Indian Mesa and Woodward wind farms in Texas for a total capacity of 240 MW.

Siemens Gamesa will overhaul the V47 turbines to upgrade hardware and control systems and resulting in an increased output of 710 kilowatts (kW), up from the previous 660 kW, as well as extending the life of the turbines for another 10 years with an increased availability. The company will upgrade the electrical and electronic components of the wind turbines, subsequently improving performance and increasing its lifetime energy production. The overhaul is expected to be completed by the end of the year and the turbines will remain operational during the process.

“We highly value our continued partnership with NextEra Energy Resources,” said Mark Albenze, CEO of Siemens Gamesa’s Service Business Unit. “As a multi-brand service provider, we can enhance the performance of V47 turbines with our cutting-edge solutions by delivering maximum performance and optimal energy output, allowing NextEra Energy Resources to achieve the best possible return on their investment.”

King Mountain Wind Energy Center

The second agreement signed between Siemens Gamesa and NextEra is for the repowering of 210 units of the legacy Bonus 1.3 MW wind turbine at the King Mountain Wind Energy Center in Texas, making it the first time a 1.3 MW turbine has ever been repowered.

“Repowering the Bonus units demonstrates Siemens Gamesa’s commitment to maximizing value for our customers throughout an asset’s lifecycle,” added Mark Albenze. “The upgrades will improve the reliability of these units by modernizing the turbines to reduce maintenance requirements and sustain overall site availability.”

https://cleantechnica.com/2018/04/26/siemens-gamesa-to-repower-508-megawatts-of-us-wind/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 13, 2018, 06:18:58 pm »



Harnessing the Wind: ‘Viking Grace’ Becomes First Passenger Ship to Use a Rotor Sail for Wind-Assisted 💨 Proplusion

April 11, 2018 by Mike Schuler

Norsepower’s rotor sail is installed aboard MS Viking Grace. Photo: Norsepower

One of the world’s most eco-friendly passenger vessels is about to get a whole lot more eco-friendly.
Finnish shipping line Viking Line has equipped its LNG-fueled Viking Grace with a rotor sail to help reduce the vessel’s environmental impact even more by harnessing the power of the wind.

The 57,565 GT Viking Grace, which has been in operation since 2013, is already considered one of the most eco-friendly cruise ferries in the world, but the addition of a rotor sail will help the vessel cut fuel consumption and reduce emissions even further when its begins wind-assisted voyages in the Baltic Sea between Turku, Finland and Stockholm, Sweden beginning on Thursday.

Developed by the Finnish company Norsepower Oy Ltd, the Rotor Sail Solution installed on the Viking Grace is a modernized version of the Flettner rotor; a spinning cylinder that uses the Magnus effect to harness wind power to propel a ship. The company first announced the project to install one of its devices aboard Viking Grace in January 2017.

While rotor sails have been in use on commercial ships before, the Viking Grace will be the first passenger ship in the world to be equipped with the technology.

The cylindrical rotor sail installed on the vessel 24 meters in height by 4 meters in diameter. As the rotor is spinning, the passing air will flow with a lower pressure on one side, creating a pressure difference that will propel the vessel forward.

Norsepower’s Rotor Sail Solution is already in commercial use on board the Bore’s MV Estraden, a 9,700 DWT Ro-Ro carrier, which has achieved a 6.1% reduction in fuel consumption through use of the rotor sails, according to Norsepower. The technology is fully automated, sensing whenever the wind is strong enough to deliver fuel savings, at which point the rotors start automatically.

Aboard the MS Viking Grace, the rotor sail will reduce the vessel’s carbon dioxide emissions by up to 900 tonnes per year, depending on the wind conditions, Viking Line says.

“For Norsepower, it’s an honour to be able to make the M/S Viking Grace even more environmentally-friendly by means of our novel rotor sail technology. The last traditional windjammers in the world were owned and operated by shipping companies based in Ĺland, so it’s fitting that Ĺland-based Viking Line should be a forerunner in launching modern auxiliary sail technology,” says Tuomas Riski, CEO of Norsepower.

In addition to the Viking Grace, Viking Line has also announced it will also utilize wind propulsion in the company’s new vessel, which is due for delivery 2020. Built in China, the passenger ship will be equipped with two mechanical rotor sails supplied by Norsepower.

http://gcaptain.com/viking-grace-becomes-first-passenger-ship-to-use-rotor-sail/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 11, 2018, 06:32:55 pm »



Wednesday, 11 April 2018 07:46

Record-Breaking Wind 💨 Power Output  ⚡ in Scotland Sufficient for 5 Million Homes

By LORRAINE CHOW OF ECOWATCH ON BUZZFLASH AT TRUTHOUT

SNIPPET:

Scotland, which is fast on track to get 100 percent of its electricity via renewable energy by 2020    , has broken another wind power record.

The country's onshore wind turbines provided more than 5.3 million megawatt hours of electricity to the National Grid during the first three months of 2018, an impressive 44 percent increase compared to the same period last year, according to an analysis of WWF Scotland wind power data by WeatherEnergy.

Over that first quarter, enough wind power was generated to supply the equivalent of five million homes with low-carbon electricity. The best day was on March 1, when 110,000 megawatt-hours of wind power could have supplied 173 percent of the nation's entire electricity demand.

Last year, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon announced plans to end the sale of new gas and diesel-powered cars by 2032, eight years ahead of the UK government target  ;D. And unlike England, fracking was permanently banned in Scotland last year and has technically been under halt since 2015.

read more:

http://buzzflash.com/commentary/scotland-s-record-breaking-wind-output-enough-to-power-5-million-homes
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 11, 2018, 04:34:03 pm »



A jack-up vessel installs a wind turbine foundation at Deepwater Wind’s Block Island Wind Farm project in 2015. Photo: Deepwater Wind

The Biggest Problem for Offshore Wind in the United States Might Be the Ports

April 9, 2018 by Bloomberg

By Jim Efstathiou Jr. (Bloomberg) — U.S. offshore wind developers have a space problem.

SNIPPET:

Massachusetts has solicited bids for as much as 800 megawatts of offshore wind.

Finding locations big enough to assemble the huge towers and turbines and handle ships that can deliver the hardware to offshore farms is the biggest hurdle for companies eyeing a slice of the emerging market, according to Jeff Grybowski, chief executive officer of Deepwater Wind LLC, which developed the first U.S. offshore project.

“Our real challenge is finding enough port space to fit these projects,’’ Grybowski said Monday in an interview at the BNEF Future of Energy Summit in New York. Deepwater Wind used four ports to build the five-turbine, 30-megawatt Block Island wind farm off the coast of Rhode Island, he said.

read more:

http://gcaptain.com/the-biggest-problem-for-offshore-wind-in-the-united-states-might-be-the-ports/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 03, 2018, 02:53:35 pm »

Wind Power ⚡ Keeps Breaking Records In Central U.S 

By BRIAN GRIMMETT • MAR 26, 2018

Early on the morning of March 16, wind provided 60 percent of the region’s electric needs. That number set a record 🌟, breaking an earlier one set only a week and a half earlier.

Wind power also recently set records for highest peak generation at 15,690 MW and continuously sustained generation of more than 13,000 MW for three days.

The Southwest Power Pool (SPP) oversees the region’s power grid, covering part or all of 14 states from as far south as Texas all the way to North Dakota. SPP COO Carl Monroe said his biggest concern with continued wind growth is its unpredictability. Sometimes it produces a lot electricity, and sometimes very little.

“The holy grail in a lot of people’s minds is storage and does storage get to a cost where it’s competitive to where you can use it to offset the intermittency of the wind,” Monroe said.

In 2017, wind provided a little more than 22 percent of all electricity in the region, second only to coal.

SPP Wind Records

Wind Penetration ✨

Jan. 27, 2017 - 49.17%
Feb. 12, 2017 - 52.08%
Mar. 5, 2017 - 52.11%
Mar. 6, 2017 - 52.65%
Mar. 19, 2017 - 54.45%
Apr. 24, 2017 -  54.47%
Dec. 4, 2017 - 56.25%
Feb. 19, 2018 - 56.88%
Mar. 3, 2018 - 57.87%
Mar. 5, 2018 - 58.07%
Mar. 11, 2018 - 58.49%
Mar. 16 2018 - 60.56%
Wind Peak

Mar. 21, 2016 -  10,782 MW
Mar. 28, 2016 - 10,808 MW
Apr. 23, 2016 - 10,988 MW
Nov. 17, 2016 - 11,305 MW
Dec. 28, 2016 - 11,384 MW
Dec. 29, 2016 - 11,559 MW
Dec. 30, 2016 - 12,335 MW
Feb. 9, 2017 - 13,342 MW
Dec. 4, 2017 - 14,150 MW
Dec. 15, 2017 - 15,690 MW
--

Brian Grimmett, based at KMUW in Wichita, is a reporter focusing on the environment and energy for the Kansas News Service, a collaboration of KMUW, Kansas Public Radio, KCUR and High Plains Public Radio covering health, education and politics. Follow him on Twitter @briangrimmett. Kansas News Service stories and photos may be republished at no cost with proper attribution and a link back to the original post.
 

To contact KMUW News or to send in a news tip, reach us at news@kmuw.org.


http://kmuw.org/post/wind-power-keeps-breaking-records-central-us

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 23, 2018, 07:25:24 pm »

Poland, One of Europe’s Biggest Polluters, Is Turning Toward Offshore Wind Power 

March 21, 2018 by Bloomberg

SNIPPET:

By Ewa Krukowska and Maciej Martewicz (Bloomberg) — After decades of prompting coal as the guarantor of national energy security, Europe’s fourth-biggest greenhouse-gas polluter is shifting to embrace wind power.

PGE SA, which is Poland’s largest utility, wants to turn to turbines to harness the breezes in the Baltic Sea and eventually supply 2.5 gigawatts from the technology by 2030. It is considering teaming up with one of the top European players in the project and is also working to speed up investments in generation plants fired by gas and those that use combined heat and power technology, according to Monika Morawiecka, the company’s director of strategy.

The moves reflect a plunge in the cost of wind turbines and rising costs for emissions permits. With the European Union determined to clamp down on climate-damaging fossil fuels, even the most polluting utilities are starting to look at how to clean up their industries.

Full article:

http://gcaptain.com/poland-one-of-europes-biggest-polluters-is-turning-toward-offshore-wind-power/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 15, 2018, 06:02:16 pm »

Agelbert NOTE: In addition to providing higher energy harvesting, the BTC wind turbine blade, pictured below, promises to reduce or eliminate damage from hurricane force winds due its ability to twist without structural failure.


Turbine blades that bend & twist can improve their power ⚡ output

March 9, 2018 Paul Dvorak

This article comes from the Fraunhofer Research News / 1.3.2018

The share of the overall electricity market made up by wind energy continues to grow year after year. The giant rotor blades are one central part of a turbine. In the “SmartBlades” project, the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy Systems IWES and its partners developed a rotor blade, which, thanks to an innovative bend-twist coupling, is able to make more efficient use of large fluctuations in wind strength. In the follow-up project “SmartBlades2”, the concept will undergo experimental tests using a demonstrator.

The BTC blade in the extreme load test: The loads are applied via three hydraulic cylinders.

More than 28,000 wind turbines with a total output of 50 gigawatts are currently in operation in Germany: This equates to a 12.3% share of the total electricity production in Germany in 2016. This figure places the German wind energy sector at the top of the European league table, as confirmed by the German Wind Energy Association’s data. The current focus of research is now on developing this technology even further. And the Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy Systems IWES, based in Bremerhaven, is leading the way here. Within the framework of the joint “SmartBlades2” project, researchers have turned their attention to the bend-twist coupling (BTC) concept for rotor blades. The passive working coupling adapts continuously to the wind forces acting on the rotor blade. When the wind loads become too high, the bend-twists reduces the forces affecting the structure.

The rotor blades of conventional wind turbines react to changing wind strengths very slowly. A rotor blade measuring up to 85-meters long describes a circular area of 22,670 m˛, that’s the equivalent of four soccer pitches  :o. The wind strengths within this area can vary greatly. The pressure acting upon the blade pointing upward, for example, can be very different from the pressure on the lower blade. Conventional rotor blades cannot compensate for a single gust of wind as they are too rigid to twist. This means if there is a gust when the wind is already strong, the turbine operators turn the rotor blades completely away from the wind. This results in long downtimes during which no electricity is produced.

“The demonstrator BTC blade developed as part of this project is swept back whilst the blade tip is offset slightly to the rear in the direction of rotation. The 20-meter-long rotor blade is therefore able to rotate slightly around its own axis should strong gusts occur in order to mitigate the wind pressure to a certain degree,” explained the IWES technology coordinator for BTC blades, Dr. Elia Daniele. This reduces the forces acting upon the blade and, ultimately, the entire turbine. By using BTC blades on a newly planned wind turbine, the overall turbine weight can be reduced as the structure is subjected to lower loads. In case of existing turbines, the retrofitting of BTC blades allows the rotor diameter to be increased without having to adapt the other turbine components. This results in an increase in revenue thanks to a greater wind yield. 

Testing under realistic conditions

For the rest of the article: https://goo.gl/TgYfnb
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 14, 2018, 04:59:57 pm »



March 14, 2018

Insufficient transmission capacity continues to hold the US wind industry back from realizing its full potential

A Missouri judge recently ruled that the state’s utility commission “erred” in not approving the Grain Belt Express. The transmission line would transport wind from Kansas to Indiana, passing through Missouri on the way. The fate of the line now rests in the hands of the state Supreme Court. The demand for transmission to transport wind power is high -- when the Grain Belt Express was first announced, it received 4.5 times the line’s capacity in service requests from wind generators.

https://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/read/an-argument-as-old-as-wind-the-transmission-conundrum
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 02, 2018, 11:14:13 pm »

GE Unveils the World’s Most Powerful Wind Turbine  :o 

March 1, 2018 by Bloomberg

GE says the Haliade-X offshore wind turbine will feature an industry-leading 12 MW direct drive generator, enough to power up to 16,000 households annually. Image credit: GE

By Jeremy Hodges (Bloomberg) — GE Renewable Resources said it’ll spend as much as $400 million over the next few years to build an offshore wind turbine almost 100 meters taller than the Washington Monument.

The new turbine, dubbed Haliade-X, will measure 260 meters (853 feet) tall, the company said. The blades, manufactured by LM Wind Power, will be longer than a soccer field.

One 12-megawatt turbine will generate as much as 67 gigawatt hours a year, which is enough to power 5,000 households, GE said. Bigger turbines need fewer foundations and less complex grid connections than smaller units. That means a wind farm’s layout can be made more efficient, and fewer machines means less maintenance.

GE said it’ll supply the first nacelle for a demonstration in 2019 and ship the first turbines in 2021.


“The renewables industry took more than 20 years to install the first 17 gigawatt of offshore wind,” said Jerome Pecresse, president and chief executive officer of GE Renewable Energy. “Today, the industry forecasts that it will install more than 90 gigawatts over the next 12 years. This is being driven by lower cost of electricity from scale and technology.”

The costs of building and producing offshore wind farms have fallen dramatically in recent years making subsidy-free projects a reality. In 2017, the German and Dutch electricity regulators approved bids to build what will be the first offshore wind farms that depend entirely on market prices instead of government support and subsidy.

“It is important to be mindful of the challenges that come with bringing a 12-megawatt turbine to market,” said Keegan Kruger, a London-based Bloomberg New Energy Finance analyst.

Foundation manufacturers and installation vessel suppliers will need to adapt to the shift toward bigger turbines, while investors must learn to finance gigawatt-scale projects operating machines that have never been used, he said.

© 2018 Bloomberg L.P

http://gcaptain.com/ge-unveils-the-worlds-most-powerful-wind-turbine/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 21, 2018, 01:34:21 pm »



Recent Windpower Articles
֍ EU doubling renewables by 2030
֍ Siemens Gamesa secures 36-MW order for Bosnia wind farm
֍ Rocky Mountain Power selects four new projects for major wind & transmission expansion

֍ TransAlta acquires two construction-ready wind projects in U.S. Northeast
֍ Risky Business: Mitigating threats to onshore wind projects & portfolios
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 16, 2018, 09:30:37 pm »



AWEA Releases Underwater Footage of Block Island Wind Farm’s Artificial Reef

Recreational fishing industry becomes unlikely supporter of offshore wind in New England.  ;D

February 14, 2018

By Jennifer Runyon Chief Editor

         
When the Block Island Wind Farm (BIWF) foundations were put in place in 2015, many fishermen were worried. How would these giant metal formations set into the ocean change the game for commercial and recreational fisherman? Would they restrict fishing, causing these small business-owners to lose money and their livelihood?

After 6 months, their worries were starting to be alleviated and after just one year, they were completely gone. According to Chris Hobe, who has been fishing on the island since 1979, “within six months you had seed mussels,” he said in a webcast announcing the release of the footage. After one year those seed mussels had turned into a deep, thick coating of mature mussels, on which smaller fish feed, attracting the fish that feed on them and on and on up the food chain. Hobe added that a hammerhead shark was hunting in the region last summer for more than a week.

Another added bonus according to Hobe was the increased tourism that the turbines attracted. On a whim, his company offered to take the general public on tours around the turbines so they could see them up close. He never imagined the interest that would draw. By the end of the the 2017 summer season, Hobe said his company had stopped offering fishing excursions and was just doing sightseeing tours.

Engaging with all stakeholders is one of the most important aspects of building an offshore wind farm. Case in point is the now failed Cape Wind project, with its deep-pocketed opposition that killed the project after more than 10 years of lawsuits. In that case opponents were mainly concerned with views.

But if the underwater footage of the Block Island Wind Farm is any indication, fisherman, at the very least, should have no concerns with planned offshore wind farms near them. 

“We’re in the process of unlocking an entirely new American ocean energy resource with offshore wind. As the industry scales up in the U.S., communities up and down our coasts, especially in the Northeast, will want to know what offshore wind means for them,” said Stephanie McClellan, Director for the Special Initiative on Offshore Wind (SIOW), which was a partner on the project.

“When it comes to fishing, the science is convincing, but ultimately seeing is believing. That’s why we took an underwater videographer to Block Island to see for ourselves.” 

Play the video below to see for yourself. 


http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2018/02/awea-releases-underwater-footage-of-block-island-wind-farm-s-artificial-reef.html
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 16, 2018, 04:18:55 pm »

Hywind Scotland, World’s First Floating Wind Farm, Performing Better Than Expected

February 16th, 2018 by Joshua S Hill

The world’s first floating wind farm, the 30 megawatt Hywind Scotland, is outperforming expectations and operating at levels consistently above that of its seabound offshore brethren, according to project developer Statoil.

First approved by the Scottish Government back in late 2015, the 30 megawatt (MW) Hywind Scotland floating offshore wind farm is made up of five 6 MW wind turbines floating 25 kilometers off the coast of Peterhead, in Scotland. The project began generating electricity in October of last year.


According to project developer Statoil, a Norwegian multinational oil and gas company, Hywind Scotland isn’t just generating electricity, it’s been doing so at a level that surpasses expectations through its first three full months of production and beating out the average accomplished by bottom fixed offshore wind farms.

It’s important at this point to remember that a wind turbine doesn’t generate 100% of its potential electricity capacity 24 hours, 7 days a week — to do that would require very disturbing wind conditions that pretty much don’t exist anywhere on earth. According to Statoil, wind farms that are affixed to the seafloor generally generate at around 45 to 60% — in other words, they are generating 100% of their potential electricity capacity around 45 to 60% of the time.

Conversely, according to Statoil, during November, December, and January, Hywind Scotland generated at an average of 65% — and has encountered hurricane Ophelia in October, Storm Caroline in early December, and waves in excess of 8.2 meters. Storm Caroline did force the farm to shut down during the worst of the winds for safety reasons, but the turbines automatically resumed operation afterwards.


“We have tested the Hywind technology in harsh weather conditions for many years and we know it works,” said Beate Myking, senior vice president of offshore wind operations in Statoil. “But putting the world’s first floating wind farm into production comes with some excitement. Therefore, it is very encouraging to see how well the turbines have performed so far.

“Hywind Scotland’s high availability has ensured that the volume of electricity generated is substantially higher than expected. In addition, it has delivered without any HSE incidents.”

The importance of these results is more than just representative of the success of Hywind Scotland.   

“Knowing that up to 80% of the offshore wind resources globally are in deep waters (+60 meters) where traditional bottom fixed installations are not suitable, we see great potential for floating offshore wind, in Asia, on the west coast of North America and in Europe,” explained Irene Rummelhoff, executive vice president for New Energy Solutions in Statoil. “We are actively looking for new opportunities for the Hywind technology.”

https://cleantechnica.com/2018/02/16/hywind-scotland-worlds-first-floating-wind-farm-performing-better-expected/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 07, 2018, 12:43:38 pm »

France Set to Become a European Offshore Wind Powerhouse 💫 by 2022February 6, 2018 by Bloomberg

SNIPPET:

offshore wind turbines rendering By Rost9 / Shutterstock

By Jeremy Hodges and Jessica Shankleman (Bloomberg) — Europe’s wind-power industry expects new French offshore turbine installations to overtake the U.K. and Germany by 2022, boosting President Emmanuel Macron’s pledge to increase renewable energy.

Construction off the French coast is expected to ramp up from 2020 and turn the country in the fourth-biggest offshore wind generator with about 4.3 gigawatts capacity by 2030, according to the Brussels-based WindEurope industry group.

Macron has repeatedly promised to turn France into a green energy leader 🌟 and reduce the country’s reliance on nuclear power. He’s trying to cut through bureaucratic red tape that has delayed offshore wind projects tendered in 2012. His government said in November that it aims to trim offshore project development to less than seven years from more than a decade.

Full article:

http://gcaptain.com/france-set-become-european-offshore-wind-powerhouse-2022/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 07, 2018, 12:28:49 pm »

British Offshore Wind Project Draws Investment Heavyweights

February 6, 2018 by Reuters

SNIPPET:

Photo: Shutterstock/Teun van den Dries

reuters logoBy Nina Chestney and Christoph Steitz LONDON/FRANKFURT, Feb 6 (Reuters) – British offshore wind project Triton Knoll has attracted the interest of several large investment funds, according to three sources familiar with the matter, in a sign of the growing competition for assets in the fast-changing sector.

German energy group Innogy , owner and developer of the planned 2-billion-pound ($2.8 billion) farm off the coast of eastern England, is looking for partners to get it off the ground.

The project has drawn interest from a number of infrastructure and pension funds, including Australia’s Macquarie , Switzerland’s Partners Group and Denmark’s PFA Pension, the three sources told Reuters.

Innogy, Macquarie, Partners Group and PFA all declined to comment on Triton Knoll. Offshore projects of this size typically have more than one investor alongside the developer.

The demand for the 860-megawatt (MW) Triton Knoll is indicative of the wider interest in offshore wind projects among funds. The returns on offer – typically 6-9 percent – outstrip interest rates, while competition has been heated up by the fact the number of profitable new projects becoming available is declining because fewer can secure government subsidies.

New data from industry group WindEurope, provided to Reuters ahead of its publication, reflects this rising institutional investor interest, as well as the decline in the building of offshore farms.

Infrastructure funds, pension funds and asset managers accounted for 35 percent of offshore M&A activity in Europe in 2017, up from 27 percent in the previous year, according to the data. At the same time, spending on new offshore capacity in Europe declined by 60 percent to 7.5 billion euros ($9.3 billion) last year, the first annual fall since 2012.

“There is definitely competition. The larger the project, the larger the investors which look at them,” said Oldrik Verloop, head of client advisory services for real assets at Aquila Capital, which manages 3.6 billion euros of renewable assets.

MEGATURBINES  :o
The wind sector is undergoing structural change that is altering the calculus for investors.

While returns on offer beat interest rates by a wide margin, they are still lower than the double-digit percentage returns projects yielded before governments across Europe started to cut the generous subsidies that have cradled the wind power sector since its inception in the early 1990s.

Last year, auction systems were introduced which involved lower government handouts and drove down margins for projects.

The reason investment funds remain interested lies in the long-term revenues and stable cash flows wind farms generate, much like other infrastructure projects, plus the fact that technological advances are bringing down costs.

In the last decade, turbines have grown larger, with some now standing taller than the giant London Eye Ferris wheel which graces the skyline of the British capital – and even larger “megaturbines” are in the works. Bigger turbines sweep a larger area and harness more wind, cutting costs per megawatt. 

Full article:

http://gcaptain.com/british-offshore-wind-project-draws-investment-heavyweights/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 01, 2018, 02:26:37 pm »

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 01, 2018, 02:04:58 pm »

Vortex Generators 🌟 on a wind turbine


VGs Increase ⚡ AEP up to 3% ✨


Quote

EDF Renewable Services and 3M are providing owners the opportunity to increase AEP by installing maximum performing, highly reliable and quick-to-install 3M™ Wind Vortex Generators.

Vortex generator installation is tailored to each specific blade type and operating environment, improving blade performance by energizing the flow around the surface. This reduces flow separation and increases the performance of the entire turbine in terms of power, load and service life.

Vortex generators can increase AEP up to 3% and installation can pay for itself in about 1-2 years! 

Wind Power Engineering & Development on Behalf of EDF <newsletters@e.windpowerengineering.com>

 


Posted by: AGelbert
« on: January 15, 2018, 11:06:22 pm »



North Sea wind power up 47% higher than in 2016

15 Jan 2018 | Julian Wettengel

Quote
... a record of 15.97 terawatt hours (TWh)  :o ;D, North Sea wind made up a total of 15.9 percent of all …



https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/north-sea-wind-power-47-record-renewables-support-expenses

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: January 06, 2018, 11:19:14 pm »

44% Wind — Denmark Set New Wind Energy Record In 2017

January 6th, 2018 by Jesper Berggreen

SNIPPET 1:

Numbers have just come out this week from danskenergi.dk, the Danish energy organization whose members support companies in delivering steady green power to the Danes, with an impressive uptime of 99.99% at competitive prices.



SNIPPET 2:

Lars Aagaard, CEO of Dansk Energi, emphasizes that it is very important we utilize the combination of this amazing wind resource and the ability to supply incredibly stable power supply. “Electricity must replace gasoline, oil and gas,” he says.

Fewer & Better Turbines

Although wind turbines deliver a steadily increasing share of the Danish electricity supply, that does not mean that the number of turbines increases. On the contrary, today there are about 20% fewer wind turbines in Denmark than in 2001
, when the number of wind turbines peaked. In 2017, about 6,100 wind turbines were in service according to the Danish Energy Authority.

The turbines have become bigger and more efficient. In addition, the majority of Denmark’s offshore wind turbines have been installed since 2001. Overall, capacity in Denmark has more than doubled since 2001, with today’s 5.3 GW wind capacity installed on land and water.

full article:


https://cleantechnica.com/2018/01/06/44-wind-denmark-smashed-already-huge-wind-energy-records-2017/

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 22, 2017, 01:42:42 pm »

December 22nd, 2017 by Tina Casey

SNIPPET:

So, Is President* Trump A Renewable Energy Hero? 
 

A-hahahahhahahahahahahah. No. The peculiar nature of the US Electoral College enabled a chronic liar,  accused ripoff artist, admitted sexual predator, and climate change denier to park himself behind the desk in the Oval Office, despite losing the popular vote by a wider margin than any other US president in recent history.

Nevertheless, renewable energy development has continued its inexorable march to the future under Trump’s watch.

That’s partly because Energy Secretary Rick Perry has steadfastly promoted his agency’s renewable energy initiatives. It’s a weird contrast with his consistent cheerleading for Trump — ok, so let’s call it outright trolling — but there you have it (as for Perry’s record legacy on women’s health as Governor of Texas from 2000 to 2015, don’t get me started).

A case in point is the Northern Pass hydropower transmission project for New England. The project had been delayed during the Obama administration due to environmental concerns along its route, but just last month President* Trump’s Energy Department enabled it to take a step forward.

Full article;


Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 16, 2017, 06:19:32 pm »

Slanted GateHouse Media story omits most people’s experience of life near wind farms

December 16, 2017

Author: Greg Alvarez

If all you knew about the beach was what you saw in the movie “Jaws,” you’d never go. Yet 58 million Americans a year go to the shore.

Context matters. And that’s exactly what is lacking in a recent report by GateHouse Media that amplifies the complaints of a small number of the millions of Americans living near wind farms, while downplaying the vast majority who welcome the benefits of a new cash crop for rural America.

GateHouse appears to have set out to write a negative story about wind energy. First their reporter probed the idea that foreign companies were buying up American cropland. (They aren’t. Farmers keep their land and get lease income.) GateHouse then was fed anecdotal reports by opponents of wind farms online, while declining multiple offers to interview people satisfied with their local wind farm.

For nearly six months, both AWEA and wind developers responded to pointed questions and offered much-needed context to the GateHouse reporters. When offered positive accounts of wind farms in rural America, however, we were told they wouldn’t be included because the story of positive experiences had already been written.

The result, according to a watchdog group’s in-depth look at the origins of the GateHouse project: Its “anti-wind article leans almost entirely on anecdotal evidence” that “flies in the face of actual science.”

It paints a deeply inaccurate picture of wind power in America, based on a cherry-picked sampling of unhappy individuals. And it perpetuates baseless claims, in most cases without offering any evidence, which is as bad or worse of a journalistic practice than selectivity.

Vast majority of wind neighbors report positive experiences

As with other large-scale infrastructure projects, residents living near wind farms will have a variety of experiences. Undoubtedly, there are some people who do not like living near wind turbines. We are sympathetic to those individuals. AWEA and its member companies strive to ensure that wind farms are good neighbors, while leaseholders and communities around wind projects have the best possible experience.

But the context is that the vast majority of people living near wind farms report positive experiences. In the U.S., 20 million people live in counties with wind turbines. Around the world, tens of millions more live near wind turbines without issue. Once wind farms are built, as shown by polls taken recently in states such as Texas and Iowa where wind turbines have been widely adopted, concerns tend to diminish and support for building more of them has increased to 85%, 90% or even higher.

However, GateHouse refused to speak with people willing to tell their positive stories about living near wind farms.

For example, we recommended that their reporters connect with Paul Jackson, Director of Economic Development for Benton County, Indiana. Benton County is home to nearly 600 wind turbines, and the community is overwhelmingly supportive, yet Gatehouse declined to speak with Paul. Here’s a sample of what they would have heard about living with wind had they made the call:



Communities across the country echo Benton County, as in upstate New York:



And in Texas:



Or Colorado:



Health concerns

A variety of recent research shows that wind energy saves lives and improves health. By cutting air pollution, wind and solar power helped avoid up to 12,200 premature deaths, 2007-2015, and wind avoided $7.4 billion in health costs in 2016 alone, according to an AWEA analysis of data from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Over 20 peer-reviewed scientific studies have considered whether proximity to wind turbines causes physical harm and concluded it does not. Credible research from MIT, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, the Wisconsin Department of Public Health, and Canada’s equivalent of the Department of Health and Human Services bears this out.

New research into the “nocebo effect” (the opposite of the well-known placebo effect) shows that the perception of effects from wind farms can actually be caused by the spread of misinformation.

The development process

Developers spend years planning wind farms prior to construction, informed by advances in modeling and siting and over 35 years of experience operating the now over 52,000 wind turbines in America. Issues such as sound and shadows are considered and addressed in state or local permitting processes. In case after case, wind developers bend over backwards to address local concerns.

It is unfortunate that someone may be unhappy with the outcome of a permitting process, but that is true of any type of development. The reality is that no human activity garners a 100 percent approval rating -- from roads to cell towers to farming operations.

Communities are the lifeblood of wind energy

The U.S. wind industry will continue working hard to ensure that farmers and ranchers who obtain turbine lease, and communities that host the resulting wind farms, have the best possible experience. We’re proud of the good jobs and economic opportunities our projects create for rural America, and we want to get as close as possible to 100 percent approval. By choosing to completely ignore the overwhelming number of positive experiences with wind energy, GateHouse’s reporters have done their readers a disservice and may be causing the nocebo effect themselves.

For another look at the GateHouse report, see this in-depth analysis.

Read more.
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 15, 2017, 04:34:29 pm »


Asian Hercules III Floating Crane   

Asian Hercules III Floating Crane Arrives To Construct European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre

December 15th, 2017 by Joshua S Hill

SNIPPET 1:

One of the world’s largest floating cranes, the Asian Hercules III, has arrived in Scotland to participate in the construction of Swedish power company Vattenfall’s pioneering European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre.

Today is my last working day of the year, and to celebrate I get to tell you all about the massive Asian Hercules III floating crane which arrived in Peterhead Port, Aberdeen, Scotland, on Thursday to participate in Vattenfall’s European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre (EOWDC).

SNIPPET 2:

The Asian Hercules III has a lifting capacity of 5,000 tonnes :o and a hook height of at least 120 meters. The crane will be used to transport the wind turbine jacket structures from Peterhead Port to the eventual location of the European Offshore Wind Deployment Centre in Aberdeen Bay.



read more:

https://cleantechnica.com/2017/12/15/asian-hercules-iii-floating-crane-arrives-to-construct-european-offshore-wind-deployment-centre/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 14, 2017, 02:03:19 pm »

November Another Strong Month For Scottish Renewables

December 14th, 2017 by Joshua S Hill

SNIPPET:

“Over the course of the month Scotland’s windfarms generated the equivalent of 77% of our total electricity demand.  If we are to build on this success the UK Government must set out a route to market that encourages continued investment in onshore wind.

“Successive Scottish governments have set out a vision for renewables that has enabled the sector to flourish, drive down costs, create jobs and cut greenhouse gas emissions.  The forthcoming energy strategy needs to build on this strong foundation and set out the ambitious vision and steps we need to take to heat our homes and make the transition to electric vehicles.”

Full article:

https://cleantechnica.com/2017/12/14/november-another-strong-month-scottish-renewables/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 11, 2017, 11:57:59 pm »



dpa / Foundation Offshore Wind Energy / Fraunhofer IWES

Offshore wind farms deliver power on 363 days a year

Offshore wind farms produce electricity more reliably than previously thought, a study by research institute Fraunhofer IWES has shown. Wind turbines in the German North- and Baltic Sea produce power on 363 days a year, while older data from 2013 had seen generation on 340 days. Germany has a capacity of five gigawatts of offshore wind power installed. Industry organisation Foundation Offshore Wind Energy says that the new figures show how offshore wind power can provide electricity in a more constant and predictable way, compared to onshore wind and solar power.

Read the article in German here.

https://www.cleanenergywire.org/news/vw-diesel-surprise-offshore-power-year-round/offshore-wind-farms-deliver-power-363-days-year
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 30, 2017, 01:11:32 pm »



First Power Generated At 400 Megawatt Rampion Offshore Wind Farm In England 

November 30th, 2017 by Joshua S Hill

SNIPPET:

Located 13 kilometers off the Sussex coast of England, when completed and fully operational next year the 400 MW project will generate electricity enough to supply the equivalent of 347,000 homes each year. The Rampion Offshore Wind Farm is jointly owned by E.ON, the Green Investment Group (formerly the UK’s Green Investment Bank), and Canadian multinational Enbridge, which announced its investment in the project in November of 2015.


Full article with more pictures:     

https://cleantechnica.com/2017/11/30/first-power-generated-400-mw-rampion-offshore-wind-farm-england/

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 29, 2017, 05:44:13 pm »

Wind power surpassed coal as the second largest power source in Texas

A 155 megawatt wind farm that came online this month brought the state’s total wind capacity to 20,000 megawatts, just over coal’s 19,800 megawatts. Additional planned coal plant closures will further increase wind power’s share over coal. Wind now generates 15 percent of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas’ power, compared to 2 percent 10 years ago. By 2019 wind power generation -- which is different than capacity -- is expected to overtake coal. Houston Chronicle
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 26, 2017, 04:34:31 pm »

But the Polluters  Continue to Peddle Bold Faced LIES to SCAM we-the-people into being FORCED to PAY a PREMIUM for THEIR Polluting Product! They want we-the-people to PAY for THEIR CRIME AGAINST THE ENVIRONMENT! 

Fact Check: What critics are getting wrong about wind power during the tax reform debate

NOVEMBER 21, 2017

SNIPPET:

AWEA's Deputy Director of External Communications: The spread of false information continues. Here’s a roundup of a few egregious examples, followed by a dose of reality.

Wall Street Journal editorial board :  “Tax reform is a chance to tell the wind racket  to get off the dole but it isn’t clear Republicans are up to the task.”



Reality: The Journal’s editorial board is asking for something that already happened two years ago—the PTC is phasing down, and will be gone after 2019.

And what they’re calling a “racket” happens to employ over 100,000 Americans across all 50 states, and keeps more than 500 U.S. factories busy churning out wind-related parts. It generates more than 30 percent of the electricity in Iowa and Kansas, and more than 10 percent in a dozen other states. There is now enough installed wind capacity in the U.S. to power 25 million homes, making it an indispensable part of our electric grid.

Merrill Matthews  , The Hill: “Scaling back or ending renewable energy and electric vehicle tax breaks, as the House Republican plan does, would come closer to putting renewable energy on a level playing field with fossil fuels, while saving the government money.”

Reality: Virtually all sources of energy have incentives in the tax code, and most of the fossil fuel incentives are likely to continue even as wind voluntarily gives up its main incentive.
 


Wind, coal, nuclear, gas and solar plants all cost a lot of money up front to build. That means developers need access to capital from investors. Each uses various tax and regulatory structures to gain access to the funds they need to break ground.

Coal and gas can use a Master Limited Partnership, an investment vehicle that does not have to pay corporate taxes and can attract a large number of investors. That gets them access to capital at low interest rates, which helps build more power plants.

Nuclear plants for 60 years have relied on a form of public insurance under the Price-Anderson Act. Investor-owned utilities, the most common owners of nuclear plants, cannot get insurance on the private market that would cover a meltdown. The Price-Anderson Act caps a nuclear plant owner’s liability in the event of a disaster, with the federal government covering the rest of the exposure. That makes such plants more attractive to investors.

For wind and solar projects, the Production Tax Credit or alternative Investment Tax Credit have boosted their attractiveness to investors as a low-risk revenue stream, so they can accumulate the capital to start building. Yet wind has received less than three percent of all energy incentives since 1950.

Sen. Lamar Alexander : “Wind blows only 35 percent of the time… so until there’s some way to store large amounts of wind power, a utility still needs to operate nuclear, gas, or coal plants to cover when the wind doesn’t blow.”

Reality: The average wind turbine generates useful amounts of electricity 90 percent of the time. Grid operators have always balanced changes in supply and demand, and balancing wind is no different. Changes in wind output are gradual and can be predicted up to 24 hours in advance, whereas conventional plants can unexpectedly go offline, creating far more complicated and costly problems for grid operators.

Sen. Alexander is confusing wind generation with what is called the “capacity factor,” which means what percentage a plant operates year-round of its theoretical maximum capacity. New wind farms average capacity factors over 40 percent, roughly the same as conventional plants, which don’t run flat-out 24 hours a day, 365 days a year either. But that doesn’t mean they only generate electricity 40 percent of the time. Rather, some days they’re generating right at the max, other days somewhere in between, but rarely are they standing still.

Think of it like driving on the highway. Even though the speed limit may be 65 MPH, your car won’t hit that maximum speed at all times due to traffic and other factors. But that also doesn’t mean your car is standing still when you’re not hitting 65—you’re still moving (hopefully).

Eduardo Porter , New York Times: “The Wind Catcher farm in Oklahoma occupies 2,400 times as much land as Diablo Canyon but produces half as much energy.”


Reality: This is an apples-to-oranges comparison of different energy sources. Mining and waste storage add to a conventional power plant’s footprint, and a nuclear power plant fully occupies the land it sits on. Meanwhile, land used for wind farms is multi-purpose.

The average wind project leaves 98 percent of land left undisturbed, making it free for other uses like farming and ranching. The proposed Wind Catcher project will use just a tiny portion of the land area its turbines are installed across, with overwhelming majority still free for farming or ranching.

Robert Bryce , New York Post:  “Multibillion-dollar subsidies for Big Wind are also fueling widespread destruction of American wildlife.”


Reality: Wind energy has a legacy of care for the environment to uphold, and does far more to safeguard nearby wildlife than virtually any other industry. Wind turbines have the lowest impacts on wildlife and their habitats of any utility-scale power plant, according to the New York State Energy and Research Development Authority. A typical wind turbine is struck by fewer than one bird per month, which compares favorably to a tall building; overall, wind energy is responsible for less than a hundredth of one percent of human-related bird deaths.

Bryce has a long history of spreading false and misleading information about wind, even after he has been corrected, and he has ties to anti-renewable special interests. More than 50 journalists and educators once submitted a letter to the New York Times urging its public editor to do a better job disclosing conflicts of interest from op-ed writers like Bryce.

There’s more to a thriving business environment than lower taxes. Businesses also need stability to confidently invest and hire workers. By pulling the rug out from under the wind industry, the House bill would upend the stability created by the 2015 phase-out. The Senate version, on the other hand, does right by U.S. wind workers and all the rural Americans who are counting on this new cash crop to revitalize their communities. Contact your representatives today to let them know you support American wind workers. 

Full article:

http://www.aweablog.org/critics-getting-wrong-wind-power-tax-reform-debate/


The Fossil Fuelers DID THE Clean Energy  Inventions suppressing, Climate Trashing, human health depleting CRIME,   but since they have ALWAYS BEEN liars and conscience free crooks, they are trying to AVOID   DOING THE TIME or     PAYING THE FINE!     Don't let them get away with it! Pass it on!   
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 23, 2017, 06:03:43 pm »

Dudgeon Offshore Wind Farm Powers Up in the UK

November 22, 2017 by gCaptain


Statoil’s 402MW Dudgeon offshore wind farm near Great Yarmouth, England. Photo: Statoil

SNIPPET:

The Dudgeon offshore wind farm has started delivering electricity to the UK power grid, providing renewable energy to around 410,000 homes.

Statoil and its partners Masdar and Statkraft officially opened the Dudgeon wind farm on Wednesday in Great Yarmouth, England.


A view of Statoil’s Dudgeon offshore wind farm near Great Yarmouth, Britain November 22, 2017. REUTERS/Darren Staples

Full article:

http://gcaptain.com/dudgeon-offshore-wind-farm-powers-up-in-the-uk/

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