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Topic Summary

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 20, 2017, 01:51:09 pm »


Do sea fish and sea mammals drink sea water and if they do how do they eliminate Sodium? ???
   
   
Fresh water fish do not drink water, they absorbed it through their skin, like osmosis. Sea water fish do drink water, and excrete the salt through their gills.

The salmon, which lives in both environments, gets its water like a fresh water fish when in fresh water and like a sea water fish when in the sea.

http://www.answers.com/Q/Do_sea_fish_and_sea_mammals_drink_sea_water_and_if_they_do_how_do_they_eliminate_Sodium



How Fish Gills Work

These fantastic little organs allow the fish to absorb oxygen from the water and use it for energy. Functionally, gills are not that dissimilar to the lungs in humans and other mammals. The main difference is how they are able to absorb much smaller concentrations of available oxygen, while allowing the fish to maintain an appropriate level of Sodium Chloride (salt) in their bloodstream.

Gills work on the same principle as lungs. In the lungs, there are small sacs called alveoli that are approximately 70% capillaries. These capillaries carry deoxygenated blood from the body. As oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveoli’s membrane, the capillaries take the newly oxygenated blood back to the body. Similarly, gills have small rows and columns of specialized cells grouped together called the epithelium. Deoxygenated blood in the fish is supplied directly from the heart to the epithelium via arteries, and even yet smaller arterioles. As seawater is forced across the epithelium membranes, dissolved oxygen in the seawater is taken up by tiny blood vessels and veins, while the carbon dioxide is exchanged.

Gills themselves have a car radiator-like appearance. Most fish have 4 gills on each side, consisting of a main bar-like structure that has numerous branches as that of a tree, and those branches consisting of even smaller branch-like structures. This arrangement of cells allows for a very large surface area when the gills are immersed in water.


Functionally, the mechanism for pumping water over the radiator-like gills seems to vary depending on the species of fish. In general, this is achieved by the fish lowering the floor of the mouth and widening the outer skin flap that protects the gills, called the operculum. This increase in volume lowers the pressure within the mouth causing the water to rush in. As the fish raises the floor of their mouth, an inward fold of skin forms a valve of sorts which doesn’t allow water to rush out. The pressure is then increased compared to the outside of the mouth and the water is forced through the operculum opening and across the gills.

Gills themselves need a very large surface area to provide the fish with the necessary oxygen demands. Air is approximately 21% oxygen or about 210,000 parts per million. Water, on the other hand, only has about 4-8 parts per million of dissolved oxygen that the gills can extract. Because of this, if the fish did not have a large gill surface area to absorb as much oxygen as it can for it’s size, it would quickly suffocate. Cold blooded animals also tend to have a lower metabolism than their warm blooded counterparts. This aids them in their ability to handle environments of low available oxygen. Should the same size fish be warm blooded, the metabolism of the little swimmer would be increased to the point that the available oxygen would not be sufficient and little Nemo would perish.

While the large gill surface area allows for sufficient exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen, it at the same time exposes the same large blood volume to the hypertonic (that is, saltier than thou) sea water, creating a situation in which fish must have a backup mechanism for expelling excess sodium that has been incidentally absorbed. Conversely, freshwater fish need to have an opposite mechanism allowing them to excrete excess water to keep their sodium levels appropriately high. Never mind about those anadromous gypsies who trounce back and forth, able to thrive in both fresh and salt water environments. We will just call them show offs and leave it at that.

To deal with this sodium problem, inside the gill resides nifty little cells called chloride cells. These cells allow for the extrusion of any unwanted sodium. Freshwater fish tend to have less of these cells than do their seafaring counterparts. This, combined with the ability to have extremely diluted urine, allows fresh water fish to keep their sodium level appropriately high.

Chloride Cells (cc) of Nile tilapia seen as dark dots with examples encircled.
Fig. 4. Chloride cells (cc) of Nile tilapia, seen as dark dots with examples encircled, are situated in the filamental epithelium at the base of the lamellae (gl). Control fish A. In the 6 h and 24 h post treatment groups, chloride cells had migrated towards the apices of the lamella (arrow) B. This phenomenon was observed in both the clipped and handled fish. cc: chloride cell, gf: gill filament, gl: gill lamellae. 

If you liked this article, you might also enjoy subscribing to our new Daily Knowledge YouTube channel, as well as:

◾Whales Don’t Spray Water Out of Their Blowholes Nor are Their Throats and Blowhole Connected

◾Clownfish are All Born Male, a Dominant Male Will Turn Female When the Current Female of the Group Dies

◾The Candirú Fish Can’t Swim Up a Stream of Your Urine  ;D

◾Sushi is Not Raw Fish

◾Goldfish Do Not Have a Three Second Memory

Bonus Facts:  ;D

◾Given that the size of the gills helps with the uptake of oxygen, as you might expect, the more active a fish is, the bigger the gills compared to their body size.

◾Because the marine environment is hyperosmotic, boney fish tend to lose water through osmosis. Because of this. they tend to compensate by taking in water through the gut, thereby exacerbating the problem of sodium uptake.

◾The distance between the blood and water in the epithelial cells of fish is approximately 1 micro meter, or about 1 millionth of a meter.

◾At approximately 32,000 species, fish exhibit greater species diversity then any other class of vertebrates.

◾It is estimated that there are approximately 15,000 unidentified fish species.  :o

◾Fossil evidence has suggested that fish have been on the earth for approximately 400 million years.

◾Fish that have the ability to live in both salt water and fresh water are called Anadromous fish.

Most boney fish maintain the sodium content of their body fluids at approximately 40% that of sea water.

◾Anadromous fish must have physiological processes to deal with the changing salt content in their environment. One mechanism used is that, while in fresh water, they tend to have the ability to excrete very dilute urine, thus removing more fresh water and keeping their sodium levels normal. While in salt water, they use a specialized group of salt excreting cells in the gills and mouth lining. They also have kidneys that can excrete very concentrated urine.


Sharks and Hagfish have a much greater salt content than bony fish and it is naturally in balance with ocean water, thus not having the bony fishes problem of salt regulation.

http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2011/09/how-fish-gills-work/

Now you know why they call the above a hagfish.  :D

Test on Monday.  ;D




Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 18, 2017, 05:56:41 pm »

What is Laser Cooling?     

This video will introduce you with the a laser cooling lab. The working and cooling of hot air up to absolute zero is also shown here.  :o 

http://www.dnatube.com/video/29076/What-is-Laser-Cooling

Agelbert NOTE: This is a BIG deal. WHY? Because, as much as I hate to admit it, this provides a way to escape the temperature effects (but NOT the ocean acidification effects!) of global warming.

This counterintuitive process gives the appearance of violating the second law of thermodynamics because it uses laser energy to COOL a gas or liquid.

Quote
The German scientist Rudolf Clausius laid the foundation for the second law of thermodynamics in 1850 by examining the relation between heat transfer and work. His formulation of the second law, which was published in German in 1854, is known as the Clausius statement:

Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics

But laser cooling doesn't violate the above law, of course. ;D  So, how does it work it's magic of cooling, instead of heating, while ADDING energy to a system? ???

A tuned set of lasers is fired at a gas or a liquid. This uses energy. BUT the targeted gas or liquid does NOT heat up in this case; it RADICALLY COOLS!

Temperature is, as everybody knows, just a measurement of how fast the atoms/molecules are moving around in a given 3 dimensional space. Faster moving atomic mass is hotter while slower is cooler. Absolute zero temperature is full atom stop (in theory  ;)).

The trick is making use of a weird property of photons which enables them to have momentum WITHOUT mass. The photons hit the target, transfer their momentum (but no mass) and SLOW the molecules down, making them real cold real fast.

The casual observer will scratch his head   and ask WHY the momentum doesn't make some of the atoms/molecules go faster (by hitting them from behind instead of head on), since molecules are going in every which way all the time. ???

I mean, shouldn't it all sort of even out?     

NOPE.

THAT has to do with photon frequencies. All atoms/molecules have absorption frequencies. A CO2 molecule will absorb high energy photons (UV band) and emit lower energy photons (IR band) which cannot get out of the earth's atmosphere. That's how global warming got going.

Well, the tuned laser photons (in the video below, they mention using six of them in GPS satellites for atomic clock cooling) do not hit atoms/molecules going AWAY from them because their frequency enables them to "miss" them (no photon momentum absorption due to Doppler effect frequency difference  ).

Quote
In the process of absorbing a photon, the atom receives a small push, a push in the direction away from the source of light, which is the key to laser cooling.
https://www.learner.org/courses/physics/visual/animation.html?shortname=PHY05_laser_cooling

The end result is billions of molecules slowing down and getting real cold, real quick as a consequence of a teeny tiny amount of laser energy injected to do the cooling.

I hope you realize that this means we will soon have air conditioners that use MUCH LESS ENERGY (look ma, no compressor!). It's painfully obvious that lasers, BECAUSE they shoot ZERO MASS photons (there ain't any other kind of photons  ;D), will require much less energy to cool down a gas than present refrigeration technology.

AND, they won't need any fancy refrigeration gas or fluid. WATER will do quite nicely for an ICE box refrigerator or air conditioner, thank you very much. 

 
Like I said before, THIS IS BIG! 

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 06, 2017, 05:57:38 pm »

Is All of NASA’s Technology Classified?  ???   

Not all of NASA’s technology is classified. In fact, since 2014, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has released an annual software catalog, allowing the public to access and download a variety of technical applications. The software catalog is available free of charge, and includes software related to aeronautics, but also business systems, data processing and storage, and other operations. NASA is the first U.S. government agency to offer comprehensive software for public access. The goal of the project is to allow academics and entrepreneurs to learn from NASA's tools.

More about NASA:

•President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958.

•A variety of animals have been sent into space by NASA, including mice, frogs, birds, rabbits, insects, fish, guinea pigs, monkeys, and dogs.

•STS-135, the final Space Shuttle mission, took place in July 2011 using the orbiter Atlantis.

http://www.wisegeek.com/is-all-of-nasas-technology-classified.htm

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: April 02, 2017, 03:52:34 pm »



Why water drops splash: a non-trivial mystery explained

James Sprittles, Assistant Professor in Mathematics, University of Warwick

March 22, 2017

Credit: Pixabay

From the raindrops that soak you on your way to work to the drops of coffee that inevitably end up on your white shirt when you arrive, you’d be forgiven for thinking of drops as a mere nuisance.

But beneath a mundane facade, droplets exhibit natural beauty and conceal complex physics that scientists have been trying to figure out for decades. Recently, I have contributed to this field by working on a new theory explaining what happens to the critical thin layer of air between a drop of water and a surface to cause a splash.

At just a few thousandths of a second, the lifetime of a splashing drop is too rapid for us to see. It took pioneering advances in high-speed imaging to capture these events – the most iconic being Edgerton’s Milk Drop Coronet in 1957. These pictures simultaneously captured the public’s imagination with their aesthetic nature while intriguing physicists with their surprising complexity. The most obvious question is why, and when, do drops splash?

Nowadays, cameras can take over a million frames per second and resolve the fine details of a splash. However, these advances have raised as many questions as they have answered. Most importantly, remarkable observations, coming from the NagelLab in 2005, showed that the air surrounding the drop plays a critical role. By reducing the air pressure, one can prevent a splash (see second video). In fact, drops which splash at the bottom of Mount Everest may not do so at the top, where the air pressure is lower.



Ethanol drop at low pressure doesn’t splash.

The discoveries created an explosion of experimental work aimed at uncovering the curious details of the air’s role. New experimental methods revealed incredible dynamics: millimetre-sized liquid drops are controlled by the behaviour of microscopic air films that are 1,000 times smaller.

Notably, after a liquid drop contacts a solid it can be prevented from spreading across it by a microscopically thin layer of air that it can’t push aside. The sizes involved are equivalent to a one-centimetre layer of air stopping a tsunami wave spreading across a beach. When this occurs, a sheet of liquid can fly away from the main drop and break into smaller droplets – so that a splash is generated.
From a coffee stain all we can see is the outcome of this event – a pool of liquid (the drop) surrounded by a ring of smaller drops (the splash).

Major breakthrough

Experimental analyses have produced incredibly detailed observations of drops splashing. But they do not establish why the drops splash, which means we don’t understand the underlying physics. Remarkably, for such a seemingly innocuous problem the classical theory of fluids – used to forecast weather, design ships and predict blood flow – is inadequate. This is because the air layer’s height becomes comparable to the distance air molecules travel between collisions. So for this specific problem we need to feed in microscopic details that the classical theory simply doesn’t account for.  :o  ;D


How a microscopic layer of air affects water droplets.

The air’s behaviour can only be captured by a theory originally developed for violent aerodynamic gas flows – such as for space shuttles entering the Earth’s atmosphere – namely the kinetic theory of gases. My new article, published in Physical Review Letters, is the first to use kinetic theory to understand how the air film behaves as it is displaced by a liquid spreading over a solid.

The article establishes criteria for the maximum speed at which a liquid can stably spread over a solid. It was already known that for a splash to be produced, this critical speed must be exceeded. If the speed is lower than that, the drop spreads smoothly instead. Notably, the new theory explains why reducing the air pressure can suppress splashing: in this case, air escapes more easily from the layer and provides less resistance to the liquid drop. This is the missing piece of a jigsaw to which numerous important scientific contributions have been made since the experimental discoveries of 2005.

Important applications

While being of fundamental scientific interest, an understanding of the conditions that cause splashing can be exploited – leading to potential breakthroughs in a number of practical fields.

One example is 3D printing where liquid drops form the building blocks of tailor-made products such as hearing aids. Here, stopping splashing is key to making products of the desired quality. Another important area is forensic science, where blood-stain-pattern analysis relies on splash characteristics to provide insight into where the blood came from – yielding vital information in a criminal investigation.

Most promisingly, the new theory will have applications to a wide range of related flows where microscopic layers of air appear. For example, in climate science it will enable us to understand how water drops collide during the formation of clouds and to estimate the quantity of gas being dragged into our oceans by rainfall.

Do keep this in mind the next time you splatter coffee drops across your desk. Take a moment to admire the pattern and appreciate the underlying complexity before cursing and heading for your “mopper upper” of choice.  ;D

James Sprittles, Assistant Professor in Mathematics, University of Warwick

This article was originally published on The Conversation.

http://www.zmescience.com/science/news-science/why-water-drop-splash/


Agelbert NOTE: So, now you know that the fellow that made the following animation was NOT describing dripping water at high altitude atmospheric pressure. Test on Monday. 


 
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 25, 2017, 09:30:56 pm »

Agelbert NOTE: If we manage to avoid destroying our biosphere, perhaps we can learn to successfully terraform other planets.

Terraforming Techniques 
 
Isaac Arthur

Published on Oct 1, 2015

This video gives an overview of various terraforming concepts and hurdles from those using near-horizon technologies to very advanced and speculative tech.
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 25, 2017, 03:13:18 pm »

That was an interesting video.  I actually watched the whole thing.

I've known about the Space Elevator concept for at least a decade, and in principle it's plausible.  The manufacturing and engineering challenges to actually building such a thing are incredible though, and I think his estimates of being able to get one up in 20 years are overly optimistic.

About the only thing that surprises me is that so far Elon Musk or Jeff Bezos hasn't done an IPO underwritten by The Squid to  get the Big Elevator Corporation (Stock Ticker code BEC) off the ground. (pun intended)  ::)

Anybody got any idea what kind of accent the narrator has is?  I never heard anyone speak English with that accent.

RE

He's hearing impaired. Probably about 20%. His delivery is similar to my youngest son's. He's hearing impaired as well.


Thank you, AZ   
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 24, 2017, 07:59:13 pm »


Upward Bound: Space Elevators
 



That was an interesting video.  I actually watched the whole thing.

I've known about the Space Elevator concept for at least a decade, and in principle it's plausible.  The manufacturing and engineering challenges to actually building such a thing are incredible though, and I think his estimates of being able to get one up in 20 years are overly optimistic.

About the only thing that surprises me is that so far Elon Musk or Jeff Bezos hasn't done an IPO underwritten by The Squid to  get the Big Elevator Corporation (Stock Ticker code BEC) off the ground. (pun intended)  ::)

Anybody got any idea what kind of accent the narrator has is?  I never heard anyone speak English with that accent.

RE



I don't know. I'll take a wild guess and say P. K. Aravind is from India but lives in the U.K.  ??? .
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 21, 2017, 05:01:39 pm »

 


Researchers create mesmerizing tornado simulation :o algorithm [with video]


Article:

http://www.zmescience.com/science/math/tornado-simulation-algorithm-20032017/
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 12, 2017, 07:58:45 pm »

This is a video about space elevators. Yeah, I know, BORING.

But, hey. it has some valuable info about how to build stuff.

Well, if that isn't enough to interest you, how about the fact that the U.S. Government had some rather ambitious ideas about being the top dog in the world as far back as 1894!   

Ya see, the Washington Monument was the FIRST BUILDING in about five thousand years to be taller than the tallest of the Egyptian Pyramids (except a cathedral tower that collapsed shortly after they built it).

ENJOY and pass it on!



Upward Bound: Space Elevators
 

Isaac Arthur

Published on Mar 9, 2017

In this episode we examine the concept of a Space Elevator, a popular piece of developing technology designed to lift people and cargo into space at a fraction of normal launch costs. We will look at technology as well as many of the misconceptions about Space Elevators which have emerged.

"The physics of the space elevator", P. K. Aravind:
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/d402...

Visit our Website: http://www.isaacarthur.net
Join the Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/15839...
Support the Channel on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/IsaacArthur
Visit the sub-reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/IsaacArthur/
Listen or Download the audio of this episode from Soundcloud: https://soundcloud.com/isaac-arthur-1...
Cover Art by Jakub Grygier: https://www.artstation.com/artist/jak...


Posted by: AGelbert
« on: March 01, 2017, 08:35:25 pm »

Earth is in a Space-Time Vortex 

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: January 23, 2017, 04:58:49 pm »


Now if we could just get the Plutocrats to go back where they came from, we could all party! ;D  :D


Video: A colorful 'landing' on Pluto
January 20, 2017
https://phys.org/news/2017-01-video-pluto.html
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 18, 2016, 05:37:18 pm »

Agelbert NOTE: This is a fascinating documentary sowing the trials and tribulations of the scientific team that designed, built and tested, over and over again, the instruments for the measurements of the atmosphere and the surface of Titan, the largest of Saturn's moons, that is ACTUALLY LARGER THAN VENUS!  :o  ;D  This is an excellent example of how to objectively arrive at the BEST design by actually applying the scientific method.


Quote
Published on Nov 29, 2016

It's a voyage of exploration like no other - to Titan, Saturn's largest moon and thought to resemble our own early Earth. For a small team of British scientists this would be the culmination of a lifetime's endeavour - the flight alone, some 2 billion miles, would take a full seven years. This is the story of the space probe they built, the sacrifices they made and their hopes for the landing. Would their ambitions survive the descent into the unknown on Titan's surface? 
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 12, 2016, 02:37:38 pm »

Elusive Planet Nine causes sun’s curious tilt, scientists say

SNIPPET (with videos)  8):


Why Planet Nine has such an unusual orbit is the next question – well after the main question, of course: where is it? But as for the tilt, Batygin suggests that the planet may have been kicked out of the gas giants' neighborhood by Jupiter, or may have been pulled by other stellar bodies in the solar system's distant past.

Regardless, for now the new research adds fuel to the excitement as the team and their colleagues continue their search for signs of Planet Nine. See more about this elusive giant in the video below. 



http://www.treehugger.com/natural-sciences/elusive-planet-nine-causes-suns-curious-tilt-scientists-say.html

MORE detailed info:
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 05, 2016, 05:22:40 pm »

Water inside carbon nanotubes turns solid at boiling temperatures, MIT researchers discover

By Shawn Knight on Dec 3, 2016, 11:00 AM     
 
mit, carbon nanotubes, freeze, water, ice, h2o   

It’s common knowledge that water freezes at zero degrees Celsius (32 degrees Fahrenheit) and boils at 100 degrees Celsius (212 degrees Fahrenheit) in normal conditions. When confined within a carbon nanotube, however, all bets are off.

While conducting an experiment that involved trying to send electric currents through water inside of carbon nanotubes, a team of chemical engineers led by Professor Michael Strano at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) noticed some unexpected behavior.

It’s been known for a while now that when water is confined in very small spaces, its freezing and boiling points can drop by as much as 10 degrees Celsius. What the team at MIT observed, however, was quite the opposite. 

Inside tiny carbon nanotubes, they witnessed water solidifying at a minimum temperature of 105 degrees Celsius – well above its normal boiling point.

The diameter of the nanotubes played a significant role in the water’s behavior. The difference between tubes measuring 1.05 nanometers and 1.06 nanometers across changed the freezing temperature by tens of degrees.

Equally as puzzling is the fact that water could even enter nanotubes at all as they’ve long been thought to be hydrophobic.

Agelbert NOTE: "Hydrophobic" means water "hating". Your raincoat is usually coated with a hydrophobic substance. Wax is hydrophobic. "Hydrophilic" is water "loving". The way the water curves up on the edge of a glass is evidence that glass is hydrophilic. Water (H2O), of course is attracted to itself (water molecules inside tree capillaries can be stretched 25 atmospheres and still attract each other as long as the capillary is not exposed to the outer atmosphere. That is how water moves from tree roots to the leaves.

More research will be needed but Strano thinks the discovery could lead to the creation of “ice wires,” or efficient highways to transport protons as water is around 10 times better at conducting protons compared to standard conductive material.

http://www.techspot.com/news/67267-water-inside-carbon-nanotubes-turns-solid-boiling-temperatures.html

Agelbert NOTE: Some good comments that might explain this strange property of carbon nanotube enclosed H2O:


captaincranky TechSpot Addict   

"My immediate thought was, if this occurs with water..what other changes could occur? Relooking at cold fusion where speculation was the molecular space might have allowed nuclear interaction. Other speculation whenever I find that roll of Reynolds.
Well, I think "freezes" might be misapplied terminology."

I'm going to take a wild, uneducated guess here, and postulate the water isn't "frozen" per se. Given the 3 elements in the mix, carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen, the scale at which this is happening, and the amount of molecular activity brought on by applied heat, the water is likely "mimicking" or "masquerading" as, a carbohydrate.

Skypickle   

The diameter of the nanotube is only 5 water molecules across. But these researchers https://www.mpg.de/6362003/water-ice-crystal

Say that you need at least 275 molecules to form an ice crystal. So the 'solid' phase of water cannot occur in the confined space of a nanotube. Rather a different 'boundary ' phase of carbon-water forms

 
browne5061

It is probably the hydrophobic nature of the CNTs that forces the solidification. As you increase the energy of the particles, they find themselves bound inside of the CNT and unable to leave. This would likely significantly increase the number of collisions between H2O molecules, giving the appearance of being a solid, without needing as many molecules as is normally required to form an Ice crystal as Skypickle points out.

Still, I wonder why they were putting water inside of CNTs in the first place. The common conception is they are hydrophobic, plus CNTs already display ballistic conductance of both electrical and thermal energy. I find it hard to believe that anyone would go 'yeah, lets add thermally *capacitive* material (water) to increase thermal *conductivity.*' I think they were trying for something else entirely, which they aren't ready to publically talk about yet. My guess would a new kind of thermal heat sink, with both high conductivity from the CNTs and high capacitance from the H2O - and this would explain why they brought it up to such high temperatures in the first place, since CNTs don't heat up readily when an electric current is applied.

wiyosaya   

My thoughts are that the size of the nanotube is somehow forcing the molecules of water to align in a fashion where they do not move - thus giving the appearance of a crystallized set of molecules.


Yynxs

Somewhere in non-available memory was some reading on crystal forming temperatures of water with additives such as salt and something to do with 'absolutely pure' water having different bonding reactions than just distilled water. I'm wondering if the size of the nanotubes creates an 'absolutely pure' water condition and whether that affects 'hydrophobic' as used to describe the carbon molecules. I know when I don't know so I'm sending this article to a friend 'Saint Jack' to see if he knows anything.
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 25, 2016, 09:33:11 pm »


Fibonacci Sequence Documentary - Golden Section Explained
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 13, 2016, 02:24:57 pm »

Illuminate Lightbulbs Wirelessly: DIY Slayer Exciter

 by tanner_tech in wireless

Circuits Contest 2016

Have you ever wanted to be able to control the powers of wireless electricity?       Have you ever wanted to build something that can light CFL bulbs from your hand?   

If so, then this is the perfect instructable for you. In this instructable, I will show you how to build a device called a slayer exciter. The video below will accompany this instructable with a visual demonstration of how it works.

Lets get started!

Step 1: How it Works 8)

A slayer exciter is basically an oscillator that has a frequency based on the LC tank circuit formed by the secondary coil and the parasitic capacitance of the top load. So now to how this circuit works.

First, when power is applied to the circuit, the current flows into the base of the transistor, turning it on. When the transistor turns on, it lets power flow through the primary coil. This induces a current into the secondary coil, which flows into the base of the transistor, turning it off.

When the transistor turns off, the magnetic field collapses letting current flow back into the base of the transistor from the resistor. This cycle repeats many times a second.

Think of this circuit as a swing, if you push somebody an a swing, they will swing forward and backwards and oscillate.

Every time you push the swing, it oscillates, but you have to push it at the right time, or it will lose energy.

The circuit functions like the person pushing the swing. The transistor "pushes" the secondary coil with a magnetic field at the exact right time. This circuit oscillates at about 398 kilocycles.

The constantly expanding and collapsing field creates a powerful RF field around the exciter. This causes the electrons in the CFL to bounce around and strike the phosphors in the glass, lighting the bulb. It creates high voltage because of the turn ratio of the primary to secondary coil. Now to actually building the slayer exciter.

Video below and further instructions at link: 

http://www.instructables.com/id/Illuminate-Lightbulbs-Wirelessly-DIY-Slayer-Excite/

Agelbert NOTE: Always remember that electrical current is never induced by a magnetic field, be it electro-magnetic or naturally magnetic. The electrons in a conductor of electricity move only when a magnetic field it is subjected to collapses. So, you have rebuild the magnetic field and allow it to collapse repeatedly to keep the current flowing to light a CFL bulb, LED and/or, with some fancy circuitry, to  run an electric (OF COURSE!  ;D)  motor. At present, sending the current through wires requires less energy than wirelessly, except in some very limited applications. 
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 08, 2016, 02:48:41 pm »

     


Evidence of God is all around us.  It's about time "science" found it.

RE


       

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: November 07, 2016, 08:24:45 pm »

         
      


Posted by: AGelbert
« on: July 09, 2016, 01:25:42 am »

Massive 'Lava Lamp' Blobs Deep Inside Earth Have Scientists Puzzled

By Greg Uyeno, Staff Writer |  July 5, 2016 10:17am ET


Full story: 

http://www.livescience.com/55285-mysterious-blobs-in-earths-mantle.html
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: June 17, 2016, 03:36:53 pm »

Unknown alien rock found in Swedish quarry

June 14, 2016

All fossil meteorites found are so called L-chondrites that originate from the asteroid that broke up, but now a single fossil meteorite has been found that is of a kind not known among the more than 50,000 documented meteorites that have fallen on Earth in recent times. This may be the first documented example of an extinct meteorite, i.e. a type of meteorite that does no longer fall on Earth because its parent body was consumed in collisions. Credit: Birger Schmitz.

A morsel of never-before-seen alien rock has been dug up in a limestone quarry in Sweden, where it had lain deeply buried for about 470 million years, scientists said Tuesday.
 
The biscuit-sized remains are unlike any other meteorite found on Earth to date, and may shed light on the history and formation of our Solar System, they reported in the journal Nature Communications.

Dubbed Oest 65, it is thought to be a splinter of a potato-shaped rock some 20-30 kilometres (12-19 miles) wide, which had smashed into another much larger body, sprinkling our adolescent planet with debris.

Previously, remnants of only one of the two rocks had been found, in the form of meteorites called chondrites.

But now scientists believe they have unearthed a piece of the second space orb, boosting the theory of a major smash-up between two galactic travelers.

It is thought that the breakup of the bigger chondrite body, about 100-150 km across, had yielded a major cluster of rocky debris in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

The resultant flux of extraterrestrial material, some of which rained down on Earth, coincided with a massive expansion of invertebrate ocean life at a time our planet's landmass was largely fused together into a supercontinent called Gondwana.

Quote

"The single meteorite that we now found... is of a type that we do not know of from today's world," study co-author Birger Schmitz of Lund University in Sweden told AFP.

Along with about 100 chondrite pieces discovered to date, the new alien fragment had sunk to the floor of an ocean covering parts of what today is a limestone quarry in southern Sweden.

In marine limestone that formed on the sea-floor 470 million years ago more than 100 fossil meteorites have been found in the Thorsberg quarry, southern Sweden. The many meteorites attest to one of the most violent events in the solar system the past 3 billion years, when a hundred kilometer large asteroid broke up from a collision in the asteroid belt. Credit: Birger Schmitz.


'Extinct' space rock? ???

"The object contains very high concentrations (compared to Earth materials), of elements such as iridium, which is very rare on Earth," Schmitz explained by email.

"The meteorite also contains high concentrations of rare isotopes of the element Neon"—and in different proportions than in chondrites.


The team measured telltale signs of cosmic radiation in the meteorite to determine how long it had flown around in space before crashing to Earth.

"Our meteorite fell 470 million years ago," said Schmitz—more or less the same period as the chondrite fragments.

The mysterious morsel "may be a fragment of the impactor that broke up the (chondrite) parent body," concluded the study.

A meteorite discovered in a Swedish quarry is unique and distinct from other meteorites. It appears to be a relic of a massive collision in the asteroid belt 470 million years ago that send debris raining to Earth during the Ordovician Period. In this image, the black 'fossil' meteorite is preserved in slate from the quarry. Credit: Qing-zhu Yin, UC Davis

The extraterrestrial lander may be the first documented example of an "extinct meteorite"—so called because it's parent body had been entirely consumed by space collisions, meaning no more fragments can fall to Earth today.

Chondrites still drop to our planet every now and then.

The findings mean that today's meteorites—on which scientists base much of their assumptions about our Solar System's formation—are not fully representative of what is, and once was, out there.

"Apparently, there is potential to reconstruct important aspects of solar-system history by looking down on Earth sediments, in addition to looking up at the skies," wrote the study authors.

Explore further: Meteorite minerals hint at earth extinctions, climate change

More information: A new type of solar-system material recovered from Ordovician marine limestone, Nature Communications, nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/ncomms11851

Journal reference: Nature Communications search and more info website


 http://phys.org/news/2016-06-unknown-alien-swedish-quarry.html#jCp
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: February 17, 2016, 04:19:12 pm »

25 Scientific Facts That Will Blow Your Mind

The one that flabbergasted me was the statement that the human body puts out more heat per unit volume than the sun.  I find that hard to believe. I am sure that they used Hess's law to come up with that.   

Hess's law is a brute force INDIRECT measurement of heat (i.e. enthalpy=energy) of formation of chemical compounds that ignores magnetic forces, nuclear physics forces AND biological enzyme heat reduction in chemical reactions.

I've gone round and round with my wife the chemist on this (and RE at the diner too!). 

My point is that the enzymes reshape the substrate temporarily, thereby making it a DIFFERENT chemical compound energywise with the same elements in number and mass. This enzyme massaged chemical compound has BOTH a lower energy of activation AND a lower amount of OVERALL heat released THROUGHOUT the reaction when the reaction on it takes place.

Hess's law looks at chemical bonds as having a FIXED amount of energy needed to break them (exothermic) or make them (endothermic). This assumption is valid in non-living chemical processes. I claim that it is NOT valid in living processes.

I claim that enzymes, otherwise known as catalysts, REDUCE the total energy output of a biological chemical reaction, even though the enzyme itself is not changed. This flies in the face of accepted thermodynamics and the Law of Conservation of Energy. So, I have a very difficult time convincing chemists that I have a valid argument.  :(

Nevertheless, as the above video points out, the cause of gravity (which is, like magnetism, a form of attraction of masses) is not well understood. No scientist will claim that your refrigerator magnet uses any energy to remain sticking to your refrigerator against the forces of gravity.

But the same scientist must admit that it will take energy for you to pull it off;D

My hypothesis is supported by science in regard to the mechanism that enzymes (biological catalysts far more complex than the industrial catalysts our crude heat, beat and treat industrial processes rely on ) use to lower the energy of activation to start a chemical reaction.

But, the second part of my hypothesis, which states that the enzyme, due to the magnetic distortion it forces on a chemical compound substrate WITHOUT any measurable release of energy, lowers the overall  enthalpy=heat=energy, NOT just the activation enthalpy=heat=energy of said chemical reaction, PARTICULARLY in exothermic (energy release instead of energy absorbing) chemical reactions, is rejected because it gives Hess's Law a huge headache. That "headache" is that it appears to violate the "law" of conservation of energy.  ;D

So, go ahead, pull that magnet off the refrigerator and tell me you used the same amount of energy to put it there as to pull it off.   

So, go ahead, tell me an industrial catalyst on exactly the same chemical compound found in the human body, according to Hess's Law, releases exactly the same amount of energy when a biological enzyme acts on it to produce exactly the same products as the industrial catalyst does. 

Hess's Law is the basis of virtually all the assumptions on thermodynamics that science has today. It is very useful because of the difficulty of measuring the energy released by some chemical reactions.


But if what goes on inside us was as Hess's Law of enthalpy of formation DICTATES, we would exceed the outer temperature boundary required by homeostasis and die. There is no homeostasis on the sun. Homeostasis is sine qua non to life. We do not overheat because enzymes apparently get around the law of conservation of energy by some mechanism that we do not understand. I am not saying that they ACUALLY violate the law of conservation of energy. I am saying that the law of conservation of energy is improperly accounted for in Hess's "Law".

You may assume that I am all wet. But someday, science will admit that enzymes, due to extremely complex magnetic arrangements in their design, save far more energy during their existence as biological chemical reaction mediators than was used by the human body to manufacture them. 

Quote
"All that was great in the past was ridiculed, condemned, combatted, suppressed, only to emerge all the more triumphantly from the struggle."  Nikola Tesla.
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: January 25, 2016, 07:57:52 pm »

It looks like they can't hide the Nibiru SYSTEM any longer.  HARD EVIDENCE!  :o   Watch this video! 



Scientists find evidence that a ninth planet exists in our solar system
By Shawn Knight on January 20, 2016, 6:15 PM

Quote
It's worth clarifying that Brown and Batygin haven't actually located the new planet, having instead only inferred its presence based on the strange elliptical orbits of six known objects that orbit beyond Neptune.

http://www.techspot.com/news/63539-scientists-find-evidence-ninth-planet-exists-our-solar.html
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: January 08, 2016, 04:22:07 pm »

Posted by: AGelbert
« on: January 06, 2016, 01:49:23 am »

Fascinating History of the USA starting with the air crew encounters with "Foo fighters" over Germany in WWII all the way to the Present M.I.C. Stranglehold on Our Government that Very Few People Know About

I believe Dr. Greer is telling the truth.
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 20, 2015, 03:36:06 am »

https://youtu.be/u1G5boEW3jk



"Enemy Helicopters" was U.S. military code for UFOs during the Vietnam War.
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: December 10, 2015, 07:54:16 pm »

Former Canadian Defense Minister Paul Hellyer says the aliens are here.  :o
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: July 27, 2015, 07:03:22 pm »



Is It Always Snowing or Raining in Antarctica?  ???

Antarctica, known as the coldest place on earth, is also the driest. Some areas of Antarctica haven't seen rain or snow in millions of years.

Although the average precipitation for the whole of the continent varies between 1.9 inches to over 7.8 inches (50 - 200 mm) per year, there are dry valleys which receive less than 0.4 inches (10.16mm) per year. The temperatures are also extremely cold in these areas. For example, -13 degrees Fahrenheit (-25 degrees Celsius) is the norm in December and January, which feels even colder due to strong winds. This means that although precipitation is low, snow never really melts and these areas may look the same for millions of years.

Survival in the dry valleys of Antarctica is nearly impossible, but it proved to be of use to scientists in 2009, who visited these parts to test scientific equipment to be used on the surface of Mars. In dryness and coldness, Antarctica is the most similar place to Mars on earth. The average temperature on Mars is about -80 degrees Fahrenheit (-60 degrees Celsius).

More about Antarctica:


•The coldest temperature ever recorded was at Vostok station, Antarctica in 1983, measuring -128 degrees Fahrenheit (-89 degrees Celsius).

•Antartica is also the windiest place on earth. Sometimes winds blow at 200 miles (320 kilometers) per hour.

•Antarctica has the largest single sheet of ice on earth, and if it were to melt, sea levels around the world would increase 16 feet (5 meters) on average.

http://www.wisegeek.com/is-it-always-snowing-or-raining-in-antarctica.htm
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: July 08, 2015, 02:20:37 am »


Quote
62718, AN1, CAT 1, PT, UNKNOWN
Event Date: 05.15.1999
SHAPE: Unknown
Investigator: Chuck Reever
Disposition: UNKNOWN UAV

Witness Statement:

In the summer of 1999, I was a F/A-18 pilot flying with a tanker escort to Rota Spain. Our mission was to move 12 of our aircraft to support NATO Operations in combat missions against the Serbian armed forces in Kosovo.

While flying across the Atlantic with a block altitude of FL260-FL290 and approximately 900 nm west of the Azores I had my radar scanning the ocean for ships. I had the radar running in SEA mode to track ships. This mode will give us a contact on the radar display and also a vector of the direction of travel and its speed. My radar picked up a contact 80 nm in front of my aircraft and 20 degrees to the right.

What struck me, was this contact was at 3,000 feet and tracking slowly east at about 10-50 knots. That was very unusual. I watched it for a few moments changing direction and altitude as low as 1,000 feet. I decided to try to lock the object with my radar. I put the radar back in air to air mode and I got a steady lock at 60 nm but what happened from there was truly shocking. The object started to accelerate and climb. Within 13 seconds, which is a full sweep of the Hornet APG-73 radar, the object went to over 1,000 knots and climbed to 70,000 feet and still climbing. My radar continued its lock until the object gimbaled the radar and I lost contact. This object reacted to my radar and it appeared to know that it was being tracked. The radar was fully functional. I never saw the object but it did come close to me, less than 20 nm, as it accelerated and climbed. The weather was cloudy with about three miles of visibility.

As a highly trained fighter pilot, I know that this was not a radar anomaly. I was in shock that this happened. I did not tell anyone in the flight for fear of ridicule. My background was an F/A-18 pilot and flew  F-16's with the Air National Guard. It has been some time, but I remember this experience as if it was yesterday.

http://www.mufon.com/military-witnesses/case-62718
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: July 02, 2015, 07:05:02 pm »

Quote
The study of meteorites, space rocks that have fallen to Earth, reveals a variety of useful materials that could be extracted:

• Platinum:  precious metal used in electronics and as a catalyst in chemical reactions. Carmakers used $7 billion worth of platinum in 2012

• Palladium: harder than platinum, similar uses

• Water: can be broken into hydrogen and oxygen for use as rocket fuel or life support for humans

Planetary Resources' announcement of their intention to mine the asteroids rekindles dreams of the early Space Age


http://www.space.com/15391-asteroid-mining-space-planetary-resources-infographic.html
Posted by: AGelbert
« on: June 15, 2015, 02:01:33 am »

UFOs and Nukes expert Robert Hastings is releasing a UFO documentary later this year - 2015. Here is a trailer for the upcoming film.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taoHiZFYHkA&feature=player_embedded

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