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Author Topic: Weird Science  (Read 2280 times)

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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #75 on: March 24, 2017, 07:59:13 pm »

Upward Bound: Space Elevators
 



That was an interesting video.  I actually watched the whole thing.

I've known about the Space Elevator concept for at least a decade, and in principle it's plausible.  The manufacturing and engineering challenges to actually building such a thing are incredible though, and I think his estimates of being able to get one up in 20 years are overly optimistic.

About the only thing that surprises me is that so far Elon Musk or Jeff Bezos hasn't done an IPO underwritten by The Squid to  get the Big Elevator Corporation (Stock Ticker code BEC) off the ground. (pun intended)  ::)

Anybody got any idea what kind of accent the narrator has is?  I never heard anyone speak English with that accent.

RE



I don't know. I'll take a wild guess and say P. K. Aravind is from India but lives in the U.K.  ??? .
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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #76 on: March 25, 2017, 03:13:18 pm »
That was an interesting video.  I actually watched the whole thing.

I've known about the Space Elevator concept for at least a decade, and in principle it's plausible.  The manufacturing and engineering challenges to actually building such a thing are incredible though, and I think his estimates of being able to get one up in 20 years are overly optimistic.

About the only thing that surprises me is that so far Elon Musk or Jeff Bezos hasn't done an IPO underwritten by The Squid to  get the Big Elevator Corporation (Stock Ticker code BEC) off the ground. (pun intended)  ::)

Anybody got any idea what kind of accent the narrator has is?  I never heard anyone speak English with that accent.

RE

He's hearing impaired. Probably about 20%. His delivery is similar to my youngest son's. He's hearing impaired as well.


Thank you, AZ   
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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #77 on: March 25, 2017, 09:30:56 pm »
Agelbert NOTE: If we manage to avoid destroying our biosphere, perhaps we can learn to successfully terraform other planets.

Terraforming Techniques 
 
Isaac Arthur

Published on Oct 1, 2015

This video gives an overview of various terraforming concepts and hurdles from those using near-horizon technologies to very advanced and speculative tech.
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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #78 on: April 02, 2017, 03:52:34 pm »


Why water drops splash: a non-trivial mystery explained

James Sprittles, Assistant Professor in Mathematics, University of Warwick

March 22, 2017

Credit: Pixabay

From the raindrops that soak you on your way to work to the drops of coffee that inevitably end up on your white shirt when you arrive, you’d be forgiven for thinking of drops as a mere nuisance.

But beneath a mundane facade, droplets exhibit natural beauty and conceal complex physics that scientists have been trying to figure out for decades. Recently, I have contributed to this field by working on a new theory explaining what happens to the critical thin layer of air between a drop of water and a surface to cause a splash.

At just a few thousandths of a second, the lifetime of a splashing drop is too rapid for us to see. It took pioneering advances in high-speed imaging to capture these events – the most iconic being Edgerton’s Milk Drop Coronet in 1957. These pictures simultaneously captured the public’s imagination with their aesthetic nature while intriguing physicists with their surprising complexity. The most obvious question is why, and when, do drops splash?

Nowadays, cameras can take over a million frames per second and resolve the fine details of a splash. However, these advances have raised as many questions as they have answered. Most importantly, remarkable observations, coming from the NagelLab in 2005, showed that the air surrounding the drop plays a critical role. By reducing the air pressure, one can prevent a splash (see second video). In fact, drops which splash at the bottom of Mount Everest may not do so at the top, where the air pressure is lower.



Ethanol drop at low pressure doesn’t splash.

The discoveries created an explosion of experimental work aimed at uncovering the curious details of the air’s role. New experimental methods revealed incredible dynamics: millimetre-sized liquid drops are controlled by the behaviour of microscopic air films that are 1,000 times smaller.

Notably, after a liquid drop contacts a solid it can be prevented from spreading across it by a microscopically thin layer of air that it can’t push aside. The sizes involved are equivalent to a one-centimetre layer of air stopping a tsunami wave spreading across a beach. When this occurs, a sheet of liquid can fly away from the main drop and break into smaller droplets – so that a splash is generated.
From a coffee stain all we can see is the outcome of this event – a pool of liquid (the drop) surrounded by a ring of smaller drops (the splash).

Major breakthrough

Experimental analyses have produced incredibly detailed observations of drops splashing. But they do not establish why the drops splash, which means we don’t understand the underlying physics. Remarkably, for such a seemingly innocuous problem the classical theory of fluids – used to forecast weather, design ships and predict blood flow – is inadequate. This is because the air layer’s height becomes comparable to the distance air molecules travel between collisions. So for this specific problem we need to feed in microscopic details that the classical theory simply doesn’t account for.  :o  ;D


How a microscopic layer of air affects water droplets.

The air’s behaviour can only be captured by a theory originally developed for violent aerodynamic gas flows – such as for space shuttles entering the Earth’s atmosphere – namely the kinetic theory of gases. My new article, published in Physical Review Letters, is the first to use kinetic theory to understand how the air film behaves as it is displaced by a liquid spreading over a solid.

The article establishes criteria for the maximum speed at which a liquid can stably spread over a solid. It was already known that for a splash to be produced, this critical speed must be exceeded. If the speed is lower than that, the drop spreads smoothly instead. Notably, the new theory explains why reducing the air pressure can suppress splashing: in this case, air escapes more easily from the layer and provides less resistance to the liquid drop. This is the missing piece of a jigsaw to which numerous important scientific contributions have been made since the experimental discoveries of 2005.

Important applications

While being of fundamental scientific interest, an understanding of the conditions that cause splashing can be exploited – leading to potential breakthroughs in a number of practical fields.

One example is 3D printing where liquid drops form the building blocks of tailor-made products such as hearing aids. Here, stopping splashing is key to making products of the desired quality. Another important area is forensic science, where blood-stain-pattern analysis relies on splash characteristics to provide insight into where the blood came from – yielding vital information in a criminal investigation.

Most promisingly, the new theory will have applications to a wide range of related flows where microscopic layers of air appear. For example, in climate science it will enable us to understand how water drops collide during the formation of clouds and to estimate the quantity of gas being dragged into our oceans by rainfall.

Do keep this in mind the next time you splatter coffee drops across your desk. Take a moment to admire the pattern and appreciate the underlying complexity before cursing and heading for your “mopper upper” of choice.  ;D

James Sprittles, Assistant Professor in Mathematics, University of Warwick

This article was originally published on The Conversation.

http://www.zmescience.com/science/news-science/why-water-drop-splash/


Agelbert NOTE: So, now you know that the fellow that made the following animation was NOT describing dripping water at high altitude atmospheric pressure. Test on Monday. 


 
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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #79 on: April 06, 2017, 05:57:38 pm »
Is All of NASA’s Technology Classified?  ???   

Not all of NASA’s technology is classified. In fact, since 2014, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration has released an annual software catalog, allowing the public to access and download a variety of technical applications. The software catalog is available free of charge, and includes software related to aeronautics, but also business systems, data processing and storage, and other operations. NASA is the first U.S. government agency to offer comprehensive software for public access. The goal of the project is to allow academics and entrepreneurs to learn from NASA's tools.

More about NASA:

•President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958.

•A variety of animals have been sent into space by NASA, including mice, frogs, birds, rabbits, insects, fish, guinea pigs, monkeys, and dogs.

•STS-135, the final Space Shuttle mission, took place in July 2011 using the orbiter Atlantis.

http://www.wisegeek.com/is-all-of-nasas-technology-classified.htm

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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #80 on: April 18, 2017, 05:56:41 pm »
What is Laser Cooling?     

This video will introduce you with the a laser cooling lab. The working and cooling of hot air up to absolute zero is also shown here.  :o 

http://www.dnatube.com/video/29076/What-is-Laser-Cooling

Agelbert NOTE: This is a BIG deal. WHY? Because, as much as I hate to admit it, this provides a way to escape the temperature effects (but NOT the ocean acidification effects!) of global warming.

This counterintuitive process gives the appearance of violating the second law of thermodynamics because it uses laser energy to COOL a gas or liquid.

Quote
The German scientist Rudolf Clausius laid the foundation for the second law of thermodynamics in 1850 by examining the relation between heat transfer and work. His formulation of the second law, which was published in German in 1854, is known as the Clausius statement:

Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics

But laser cooling doesn't violate the above law, of course. ;D  So, how does it work it's magic of cooling, instead of heating, while ADDING energy to a system? ???

A tuned set of lasers is fired at a gas or a liquid. This uses energy. BUT the targeted gas or liquid does NOT heat up in this case; it RADICALLY COOLS!

Temperature is, as everybody knows, just a measurement of how fast the atoms/molecules are moving around in a given 3 dimensional space. Faster moving atomic mass is hotter while slower is cooler. Absolute zero temperature is full atom stop (in theory  ;)).

The trick is making use of a weird property of photons which enables them to have momentum WITHOUT mass. The photons hit the target, transfer their momentum (but no mass) and SLOW the molecules down, making them real cold real fast.

The casual observer will scratch his head   and ask WHY the momentum doesn't make some of the atoms/molecules go faster (by hitting them from behind instead of head on), since molecules are going in every which way all the time. ???

I mean, shouldn't it all sort of even out?     

NOPE.

THAT has to do with photon frequencies. All atoms/molecules have absorption frequencies. A CO2 molecule will absorb high energy photons (UV band) and emit lower energy photons (IR band) which cannot get out of the earth's atmosphere. That's how global warming got going.

Well, the tuned laser photons (in the video below, they mention using six of them in GPS satellites for atomic clock cooling) do not hit atoms/molecules going AWAY from them because their frequency enables them to "miss" them (no photon momentum absorption due to Doppler effect frequency difference  ).

Quote
In the process of absorbing a photon, the atom receives a small push, a push in the direction away from the source of light, which is the key to laser cooling.
https://www.learner.org/courses/physics/visual/animation.html?shortname=PHY05_laser_cooling

The end result is billions of molecules slowing down and getting real cold, real quick as a consequence of a teeny tiny amount of laser energy injected to do the cooling.

I hope you realize that this means we will soon have air conditioners that use MUCH LESS ENERGY (look ma, no compressor!). It's painfully obvious that lasers, BECAUSE they shoot ZERO MASS photons (there ain't any other kind of photons  ;D), will require much less energy to cool down a gas than present refrigeration technology.

AND, they won't need any fancy refrigeration gas or fluid. WATER will do quite nicely for an ICE box refrigerator or air conditioner, thank you very much. 

 
Like I said before, THIS IS BIG! 

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AGelbert

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Re: Weird Science
« Reply #81 on: April 20, 2017, 01:51:09 pm »

Do sea fish and sea mammals drink sea water and if they do how do they eliminate Sodium? ???
   
   
Fresh water fish do not drink water, they absorbed it through their skin, like osmosis. Sea water fish do drink water, and excrete the salt through their gills.

The salmon, which lives in both environments, gets its water like a fresh water fish when in fresh water and like a sea water fish when in the sea.

http://www.answers.com/Q/Do_sea_fish_and_sea_mammals_drink_sea_water_and_if_they_do_how_do_they_eliminate_Sodium



How Fish Gills Work

These fantastic little organs allow the fish to absorb oxygen from the water and use it for energy. Functionally, gills are not that dissimilar to the lungs in humans and other mammals. The main difference is how they are able to absorb much smaller concentrations of available oxygen, while allowing the fish to maintain an appropriate level of Sodium Chloride (salt) in their bloodstream.

Gills work on the same principle as lungs. In the lungs, there are small sacs called alveoli that are approximately 70% capillaries. These capillaries carry deoxygenated blood from the body. As oxygen and carbon dioxide pass across the alveoli’s membrane, the capillaries take the newly oxygenated blood back to the body. Similarly, gills have small rows and columns of specialized cells grouped together called the epithelium. Deoxygenated blood in the fish is supplied directly from the heart to the epithelium via arteries, and even yet smaller arterioles. As seawater is forced across the epithelium membranes, dissolved oxygen in the seawater is taken up by tiny blood vessels and veins, while the carbon dioxide is exchanged.

Gills themselves have a car radiator-like appearance. Most fish have 4 gills on each side, consisting of a main bar-like structure that has numerous branches as that of a tree, and those branches consisting of even smaller branch-like structures. This arrangement of cells allows for a very large surface area when the gills are immersed in water.


Functionally, the mechanism for pumping water over the radiator-like gills seems to vary depending on the species of fish. In general, this is achieved by the fish lowering the floor of the mouth and widening the outer skin flap that protects the gills, called the operculum. This increase in volume lowers the pressure within the mouth causing the water to rush in. As the fish raises the floor of their mouth, an inward fold of skin forms a valve of sorts which doesn’t allow water to rush out. The pressure is then increased compared to the outside of the mouth and the water is forced through the operculum opening and across the gills.

Gills themselves need a very large surface area to provide the fish with the necessary oxygen demands. Air is approximately 21% oxygen or about 210,000 parts per million. Water, on the other hand, only has about 4-8 parts per million of dissolved oxygen that the gills can extract. Because of this, if the fish did not have a large gill surface area to absorb as much oxygen as it can for it’s size, it would quickly suffocate. Cold blooded animals also tend to have a lower metabolism than their warm blooded counterparts. This aids them in their ability to handle environments of low available oxygen. Should the same size fish be warm blooded, the metabolism of the little swimmer would be increased to the point that the available oxygen would not be sufficient and little Nemo would perish.

While the large gill surface area allows for sufficient exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen, it at the same time exposes the same large blood volume to the hypertonic (that is, saltier than thou) sea water, creating a situation in which fish must have a backup mechanism for expelling excess sodium that has been incidentally absorbed. Conversely, freshwater fish need to have an opposite mechanism allowing them to excrete excess water to keep their sodium levels appropriately high. Never mind about those anadromous gypsies who trounce back and forth, able to thrive in both fresh and salt water environments. We will just call them show offs and leave it at that.

To deal with this sodium problem, inside the gill resides nifty little cells called chloride cells. These cells allow for the extrusion of any unwanted sodium. Freshwater fish tend to have less of these cells than do their seafaring counterparts. This, combined with the ability to have extremely diluted urine, allows fresh water fish to keep their sodium level appropriately high.

Chloride Cells (cc) of Nile tilapia seen as dark dots with examples encircled.
Fig. 4. Chloride cells (cc) of Nile tilapia, seen as dark dots with examples encircled, are situated in the filamental epithelium at the base of the lamellae (gl). Control fish A. In the 6 h and 24 h post treatment groups, chloride cells had migrated towards the apices of the lamella (arrow) B. This phenomenon was observed in both the clipped and handled fish. cc: chloride cell, gf: gill filament, gl: gill lamellae. 

If you liked this article, you might also enjoy subscribing to our new Daily Knowledge YouTube channel, as well as:

◾Whales Don’t Spray Water Out of Their Blowholes Nor are Their Throats and Blowhole Connected

◾Clownfish are All Born Male, a Dominant Male Will Turn Female When the Current Female of the Group Dies

◾The Candirú Fish Can’t Swim Up a Stream of Your Urine  ;D

◾Sushi is Not Raw Fish

◾Goldfish Do Not Have a Three Second Memory

Bonus Facts:  ;D

◾Given that the size of the gills helps with the uptake of oxygen, as you might expect, the more active a fish is, the bigger the gills compared to their body size.

◾Because the marine environment is hyperosmotic, boney fish tend to lose water through osmosis. Because of this. they tend to compensate by taking in water through the gut, thereby exacerbating the problem of sodium uptake.

◾The distance between the blood and water in the epithelial cells of fish is approximately 1 micro meter, or about 1 millionth of a meter.

◾At approximately 32,000 species, fish exhibit greater species diversity then any other class of vertebrates.

◾It is estimated that there are approximately 15,000 unidentified fish species.  :o

◾Fossil evidence has suggested that fish have been on the earth for approximately 400 million years.

◾Fish that have the ability to live in both salt water and fresh water are called Anadromous fish.

Most boney fish maintain the sodium content of their body fluids at approximately 40% that of sea water.

◾Anadromous fish must have physiological processes to deal with the changing salt content in their environment. One mechanism used is that, while in fresh water, they tend to have the ability to excrete very dilute urine, thus removing more fresh water and keeping their sodium levels normal. While in salt water, they use a specialized group of salt excreting cells in the gills and mouth lining. They also have kidneys that can excrete very concentrated urine.


Sharks and Hagfish have a much greater salt content than bony fish and it is naturally in balance with ocean water, thus not having the bony fishes problem of salt regulation.

http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2011/09/how-fish-gills-work/

Now you know why they call the above a hagfish.  :D

Test on Monday.  ;D




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