Author Topic: How the Promise of Chemurgy Was Dashed by Big Oil  (Read 186 times)

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AGelbert

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How the Promise of Chemurgy Was Dashed by Big Oil
« on: October 10, 2013, 01:21:55 am »
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chemurgy is a branch of applied chemistry that is concerned with preparing industrial products from agricultural raw materials. The word "chemurgy" was coined by chemist William J. Hale and first publicized in his 1934 book The Farm Chemurgic,[1] the concept was mildly well-developed by the early years of the 20th century.

For example, a number of products, including brushes and motion picture film, were made from cellulose. Beginning in the 1920s, some prominent Americans began to advocate a more widespread link between farmers and industry. Among them were William J. Hale and agricultural journalist Wheeler McMillen.
Contents     

1 The Soybean Car
2 Worths
3 Downhill
4 Substitutions
5 See also
6 Notes



Henry Ford takes an ax (with a rubber tip on the business end) to plant derived plastic rear deck lid (the same material used in to build the soybean car) to demonstrate that it was, not just lighter than steel, but 10 times stronger as well.




The Soybean Car     

Automaker Henry Ford began to test farm crops for their industrial potential around 1930, and soon settled on the soybean as particularly promising (the famous Soybean Car). The Ford Motor Company used soybeans in such parts as gearshift knobs and horn buttons.

In 1935, the Farm Chemurgic Council (later renamed the National Farm Chemurgic Council) was formed to encourage greater use of renewable raw materials in industry. In its early years, the Council received substantial publicity. It was perceived by the Roosevelt Administration as a political threat, since Council leaders questioned U.S. Department of Agriculture policies.

First placing much of its emphasis on demonstrating the benefits of Agrol (a line of blended motor fuels that included ethanol), the Council drew strong opposition from the petroleum industry.

The Agrol pilot plant, which also experienced management and financial difficulties,    shut down in 1938.

Wheeler McMillen, who had become president of the Council the previous year, decided to distance the chemurgy movement from ethanol,
mend fences with the petroleum industry, and place the Council on a more cautious course.


The Council’s cause received an unexpected boost when Theodore G. Bilbo, a U.S. senator from Mississippi, sought a means to promote new uses for his region’s surplus cotton. To make his goal more politically attractive, he supported a broader research program. In the end, four regional U.S. Department of Agriculture laboratories, dedicated to finding new uses for farm crops, were authorized under the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938.

The labs were established in Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania; New Orleans, Louisiana; Peoria, Illinois; and Albany, California. Over time, their research agendas expanded, and they became less focused on chemurgy.

Nevertheless, their involvement in that field was symbolic of the chemurgy movement’s transformation from a cause associated with Roosevelt Administration critics to one with clear support from that administration.


Worths     

Chemurgy demonstrated its worth during World War II, particularly in alleviating the rubber shortage caused when Japan cut off most of America's supply.

Corn was used as raw material in much of the synthetic rubber produced during the war. Various other plants, including guayule and kok-saghyz (Russian dandelion), were investigated as rubber sources.

In the American Midwest, school children were encouraged to gather milkweed floss, previously considered a nuisance but now valued for a new role as a filler in military life jackets.

A priest in Iowa even made news by urging congregants to grow hemp, whose previous reputation as a drug hazard yielded to military requirements for rope and cordage.



Downhill       

Prospects for chemurgy appeared promising into the 1950s. An article in the December 3, 1951 issue of Newsweek, for example, said "“the flood of chemurgy seems to be swelling.”"

But as uses of agricultural raw materials advanced, so did uses for petrochemicals, and non-renewable materials eventually won   out in a number of markets. 

For example, petrochemical detergents were widely used in place of agriculturally derived soaps, and petrochemical plastic wrapping material largely replaced cellophane. 

The Chemurgic Council went through a period of decline and finally closed its doors in 1977.



In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in chemurgy, although the word itself has largely fallen out of usage. In 1990, Wheeler McMillen then 97 years old, addressed a national conference of latter-day chemurgic enthusiasts in Washington, DC. The conference served to launch the New Uses Council, which seeks to further the cause formerly promoted by the Chemurgic Council.

George Washington Carver was one of the most famous scientists of this field. In the Environmental Biography of George Washington Carver titled "My Work is that of Conservation" author Mark D. Hersey writes, "Thus, although he accepted the honorary mantle of "the first and greatest chemurgist," he was hardly in its mainstream. On the contrary, Carver often misconstrued the movement's aims, imagining they fell more in line with his own than in fact they did. Because Carver had devoted his energies to improving the lives of impoverished black farmers, he saw chemurgy as a field in which scientist addressed "a great human problem."

His 1936 injunction to "chemicalize the farm" sprang from his abhorrence of waste rather than a desire for profit, let alone an affinity for chemical pesticides and fertilizers. He wanted "waste products of the farm" to be used for making "insulating boards, paints, dyes, industrial alcohol, plastics of various kinds, rugs, mats and cloth from fiver plants, oils, gums and waxes, etc."


Substitutions      

Kenaf for jute (rope)
castor oil for petroleum-based oil (lubrication)



See also     
Decorticator


Notes     

Hale, William Jay (1934). The Farm Chemurgic: Farmward the Star of Destiny Lights Our Way. University of California: The Stratford company. p. 201.[/b]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemurgy
           GET IT?
« Last Edit: January 01, 2014, 08:40:42 pm by AGelbert »

AGelbert

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How Ronald Reagan Turned Out the Lights on Solar Power  >:(
 
In an excerpt from his new book, John Perlin reveals how one of the first actions of the new Reagan administration was to dim the lights on the solar energy program.


SNIPPET:

Dr. Barry Commoner, a distinguished scientist and strong solar advocate, was “surprised and troubled by the smallness of both the proposed solar research budget and expected results.” He wanted to see the data from the National Science Foundation that supported the Atomic Energy Commission’s dismal view of the future of solar power, especially since Solar Subpanel IX, the scientific panel that appraised photovoltaics’ contribution, was made up of, in Commoner’s judgment, “a distinguished group of experts.” A report by Solar Subpanel IX contained their findings, the scientist learned; when Commoner asked to see a copy of the report, the Nixon administration denied that such a report existed. Not believing the response credible, Commoner enlisted the support of Senator James Abourezk of South Dakota, a strong supporter of solar energy.

He received the same runaround. Finally, a solar-energy friendly “Deep Throat” told the senator that a copy existed and could be found at the Atomic Energy Commission’s document reading room. According to Commoner, “This turned out to be a dim photocopy of a hazy carbon; but it has brilliantly illuminated” the discrepancies between the science and politics of energy.

Unlike the author of The Nation’s Energy Future, the subpanel recommended an outlay of almost six times more money than the Atomic Energy Commission had requested for research and development of solar cells. Furthermore, the National Science Foundation had great expectations for solar electricity, predicting that with its suggested outlay of funds for photovoltaics, solar cells would supply “more than 7 percent of the required U.S. electrical generation capacity by the year 2000,” even though the expenditure for the solar option would be 16 times less than for the nuclear choice.

The subpanel also found the solar option more appealing because “in contrast to problems incurred by nuclear plants, photovoltaic systems would find wide public acceptance because of their minimal impact on the environment.” However, the report warned, if underfunded, “photovoltaics will not impact the energy [situation]” in future times.



http://www.alternet.org/how-ronald-reagan-turned-out-lights-solar-power

AGelbert

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The Rockefellers BEGINS at 18:35 into the video

Learn how the Rockefellers turned the USA into an Oil Oligarchy. THEY were the ones who created the framework of U.S. Foreign intelligence agencies and policies that continue to this day fomenting wars.

Also they were instrumental in our Domestic policy (education and health for a brainwashed obedient and "healthy enough to work in factories" labor force).

Although this discussion of American History, complete with the machine gunning and burning of men, women and children by Rockefeller goons calling themselves the "Colorado Militia" (NOT!) at a miner's strike in Ludlow is given in 1978, you can see ALL the tentacles that were in place THEN proving we are NOT a Representative Republic or a Democracy but, IN REALITY, an Oil Oligarchy. >:(


The corrupt shell corporation practices and (fake) philanthropic tax dodges of the modern corporation used to bribe or bully elected officials to do the bidding of NON-elected Foundation and think tank DICTATORS was pioneered by the Rockefellers.

The policy of making foreign lands safe for multinational corporations was pioneered by them.

They set the sick, putrid, wasteful PATTERN of planetary predatory capitalism that OWNS this country and most of the world.

It will be interesting to see how they plan to survive now that it has been laid bare that THEY and their "business practices" as well as "greed is good" mindset are TOTALLY responsible for our present climate catastrophe.

The Rockefellers and their ilk dove wantonly and arrogantly into society and planetary resources with the power of fossil fuels as if they were gods that could remake the Earth and we-the-people into a nice , predictable, productive and profitable slave empire. They thought they had it ALL FIGURED OUT.

Their TITANIC HUBRIS, PLANET SIZED EGOS and GREEDY FACES, after swan diving with all the power of oil into everybody's business, now faced with horrendous climate change, are coming up with SAND IN THEIR MOUTHS!

And the biosphere looks on and observes that pride cometh before a fall. The bigger they are the HARDER they fall. Too bad we-the-people have to fall too.

What are the odds that the 1%, with THE Rockefellers & friends Octopus in charge, at the pinnacle of human power and having human society by the short hairs, are going to become cooperative, altruistic and respectful of the biosphere's other Earthlings as matter of SURVIVAL, not just common sense?

What are the chances they will realize they are the biggest, most well organized, industrially efficient SCREW UPS in human history?

What are the chances they will mend their ways?

What did Dorian Gray do when he finally had to face who he REALLY was?


We can only hope.




Quote
"ARGO floats have allowed accurate measurement of ocean heat gain since 2005. Earth is gaining energy at a rate 0.6 W/m2, which is 20 times greater than the rate of human energy use. That energy is equivalent to exploding 400,000 Hiroshima atomic bombs per day, 365 days per year."


A New Age of Risk
James Hansen
Mobilizing Science for Sustainable Development:
The Sustainable Development Solutions Network
22 September 2012
Low Memorial Library, Columbia University
New York, NY



AGelbert

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The Multifaceted Anti-Hemp Conspiracy
« Reply #3 on: November 10, 2013, 11:02:57 pm »

AGelbert

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Big Oil Trying to Destroy Biofuels AGAIN!
« Reply #4 on: November 17, 2013, 09:18:00 pm »




Biofuel Stocks Sag As U.S. EPA Eyes Lower Ethanol Mandate 

By Jacob Bunge



Ethanol producers' share prices took a hit Friday after the U.S. government proposed trimming the yearly mandates for the biofuel in gasoline, raising questions about demand for a fuel source that has been a boon to the nation's farm economy.

Shares of Archer Daniels Midland Co. ( ADM ), a major corn processor and among the largest U.S. ethanol producers, closed 3.4% lower alongside declines in smaller biofuel-focused companies like Renewable Energy Group Inc. ( REGI ) and Green Plains Renewable Energy Inc. ( GPRE ). The declines came despite U.S. stock indexes closing broadly higher.

The U.S. EPA on Friday proposed for the first time to reduce the amount of renewable fuel--most of it ethanol--that refiners are required to blend into gasoline. It proposed 15.2 billion gallons blended in next year, about 16% below the amount specified by Congress in a 2007 law. Under that law, the EPA has leeway to lower the requirement.

"While we still think a large U.S. corn crop in '13 will benefit other ADM businesses, we see the [Environmental Protection Agency] renewable fuel proposal as adding risk to the shares," wrote Tom Graves, an equity analyst with S&P Capital IQ, who downgraded ADM shares to "sell" from "hold" Friday afternoon.

Ethanol producers vowed to push back against the proposal,
though executives said they saw continued demand for U.S. corn ethanol from foreign countries such as Canada and Brazil. The proposal will be subject to a 60-day public-comment period before potentially being finalized next spring.


"Almost 10% of our production right now is being produced for export" due to corn sliding to its lowest price in several years, said Todd Becker, chief executive of Green Plains, which can produce about 790 million gallons of ethanol annually from 10 plants. "If the U.S. doesn't want it, the world will take it."
[/color]

While Omaha, Neb.-based Green Plains doesn't anticipate idling any plants if the EPA follows through on its proposal, Mr. Becker said the prospect of the U.S. turning away a cheap and domestically produced fuel source was "disgraceful."

Renewable Energy Group CEO Daniel Oh said he was "disappointed" by the EPA proposal but that the Ames, Iowa, company's scale would "allow us to continue to succeed."

An ADM spokeswoman said in a statement that the agribusiness company "would be disappointed by any policy change that would undermine the [renewable fuel standard] and the government's commitment to ethanol as a component of America's energy supply." The mandate has helped create U.S. jobs and lowered the cost of gasoline for drivers, she said.

ADM CEO Patricia Woertz told investors this week that "the economics of lower corn" prices would help the Decatur, Ill., company cheaply produce and market ethanol, regardless of the EPA's decision.

"Keep in mind that the industry produced 14 billion gallons before, even though the mandate was only 12.8, back in 2011," Ms. Woertz said in a presentation. "So it could be another example of the industry producing to meet market demand, whether that be export demand" or domestic demand, she said.

The Renewable Fuels Association, which counts ADM and other agriculture companies like Monsanto Co. ( MON ) and DuPont Co. ( DD ) as members, in a statement Friday pledged to push back on the EPA proposal and warned of a blow to a "healthy farm economy."

"There's a lot more riding on this than just the ethanol industry," said Green Plains' Mr. Becker. "We're going to take advantage of the comment period and see where that takes us


Read more: http://www.nasdaq.com/article/biofuel-stocks-sag-as-us-epa-eyes-lower-ethanol-mandate-20131115-00967#ixzz2kxVnBOn0

AGelbert

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Quote

1931: Edison Advocates for Solar Energy over Fossil Fuels


In a conversation with fellow inventors and entrepreneurs Harvey Firestone and Henry Ford, Thomas Edison says of renewable energy sources: “We are like tenant farmers chopping down the fence around our house for fuel when we should be using nature’s inexhaustible sources of energy—sun, wind, and tide.… I’d put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don’t have to wait until oil and coal run out before we tackle that.” [US History, 2013; About Thomas Edison, 8/19/2013]


Entity Tags: Henry Ford, Thomas Edison, Harvey Firestone

Timeline Tags: US Solar Industry

http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/topic.jsp?topic=topic_energy

It seems Rockefeller  had other views...and the GLOBAL WARMING DENIERS   STILL HAVE THEM!