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Author Topic: Pollution  (Read 14056 times)

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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #765 on: March 30, 2019, 12:14:12 pm »


Maersk Tests Biofuel as It Sets Sail for 2050 Carbon Neutrality 🤔

March 22, 2019 by Bloomberg

Fotokon / Shutterstock.com

By Christian Wienberg (Bloomberg) — A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S is about to conduct the shipping industry’s biggest test yet of biofuel as it seeks to cut emissions and meet its target of becoming carbon-neutral by 2050.

The Mette Maersk, one of the company’s biggest vessels, will this month set off on a 25,000 nautical miles round trip from Rotterdam to Shanghai using a blend containing 20 percent of so-called second-generation biofuel produced from plant waste. The switch should save the environment 1.5 million kilograms of CO2, the equivalent of what 200 households emit in a year.

“This biofuel project is the first concrete action in our effort to reach our goal of becoming carbon-neutral,’’ Soren Toft, Maersk’s chief operating officer, said in an interview in Copenhagen. “We’re looking for ways to make carbon-neutral sailing commercially viable, because that’s key if the industry is to move ahead.”

Maersk, which operates about a fifth of the world’s container fleet, has invested $1 billion over the last four years to improve energy efficiency. 👍

The test is being organized by the Dutch Sustainable Growth Coalition and Maersk is partnering with some of its biggest clients in the Netherlands, including Heineken, Unilever and Philips. Shell will sponsor the fuel and all the parties will share the costs, which will be “significantly” higher than for a trip using normal marine fuel, Toft said, declining to elaborate.

Alternative Solutions

About 90 percent of the world’s goods are transported by the shipping industry, which is responsible for about 3 percent of global CO2 emissions. Maersk estimates that this rate could rise to 15 percent by 2050 if the industry doesn’t come up with less polluting alternatives.

Toft said using biofuel only removes “a fraction’’ of the CO2 that a ship normally emits, meaning it may only offer a “short-term or medium-term solution.’’

“We can’t say if biofuel will end up being the future that will help the industry,’’ Toft said. “We’re hoping to find some of the answers here with this trial.’’

Maersk is also working on other, cleaner, fuels for its more than 600 ships. These include ammonia, hydrogen and electric ⚡ batteries , Toft said.

“Batteries would obviously only work for short trips close to the coast line, because the technology isn’t very developed yet and, like with cars, you would need to recharge often,” he said. ::)

Last year, D/S Norden completed what it said was the world’s first test voyage with a large commercial ocean-going vessel powered by biofuel. The trip was with a product tanker vessel , which sailed the short stretch from Rotterdam to Tallinn, Estonia.

The Mette Maersk, which can carry 18,000 containers, is expected back in Europe in June.

© 2019 Bloomberg L.P

https://gcaptain.com/maersk-tests-biofuel/
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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #766 on: April 01, 2019, 05:04:27 pm »

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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #767 on: April 05, 2019, 01:25:14 pm »


Singapore Will Seek Prison for Captains and Owners Breaking 2020 Low Sulphur Fuel Rules

April 3, 2019 by Bloomberg

]Singapore  Photo: joyfull / Shutterstock

By Saket Sundria and Ann Koh (Bloomberg) — Singapore has a message for shipping companies considering cheating on rules starting next year to combat pollution to save a few dollars on their fuel bills: don’t.

Captains and owners of vessels that burn overly sulfurous fuel in the Asian country’s territorial waters could face as long as two years in prison from the start of 2020, according to the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore. If enforced, such a penalty would probably be among the strongest deterrents yet to dodging regulations that are supposed to cut emissions of a pollutant blamed for asthma and acid rain.

From next year, the ships must emit 85 percent less sulfur in most parts of the world than they do in most places today. The world’s second-biggest port said that ships that fail to use an approved abatement technology such as a scrubber, alternative fuel or compliant fuel will also be considered non-compliant.

The MPA didn’t clarify precisely what rule infringement would incur a prison sentence. Other penalties include a fine of up to S$10,000 ($7,400).

Based on precedent in the the U.S., the harshest penalties would likely be imposed if there were exacerbating factors like falsification of documents or obstructing justice, according to Magdalene Chew, a director at AsiaLegal LLC and Wole Olufunwa, a senior associate at Holman Fenwick Willan in Singapore.

“Presumably, this may be used as a yard stick comparison for what penalties imposed for breach of the sulfur cap may look like,” Chew and Olufunwa, who specialize in shipping at the law firms, said in a joint email.

The most severe penalty Singapore ever imposed for breaches of maritime air pollution regulations was more than two decades ago, said Chew and Olufunwa. Then, a vessel’s owners, master and agents, who all pleaded guilty, were fined S$400,000 each for “flagrant disregard of any concern for the marine environment.” The ship’s master also received a three-month prison term for an oil spill charge, according to the law firms.

Such penalties matter far beyond the confines of individual port states because there’s an expectation that many owners — particularly in Asia — could start by ignoring the sulfur-emission rules. The extent to which that happens will have an impact on the maritime industry’s fuel-buying patterns. However, with thousands of ships each year stopping at the island state to refuel while en route to other parts of Asia, the country’s deterrent could make many owners — and ship captains — more wary of cheating.

The penalties could mean tougher times for shipping firms as they prepare for the rules. To comply, companies can either purchase more expensive, cleaner fuel with less than 0.5 percent sulfur content, or they can install pollution-reducing scrubbers that let them keep using oil with a higher sulfur content. To make matters worse, analysts question whether sufficient low-sulfur fuel will be available in time.

“MPA is also working closely with the industry to ease the transition to the requirements under the IMO 2020 regulations,” a spokesperson said, adding that the authority has issued technical guides, along with the Singapore Shipping Association, on options available for ship operators to comply.

The authority will inspect both Singapore-registered ships as well as foreign-flagged vessels visiting the port, and employ fuel-testing service providers for detailed laboratory analysis of fuel samples. It will also deploy electronic systems for ships to declare their method of compliance before arrival.

Along with other nations, Singapore already banned open-loop scrubbers from discharging washwater, the waste liquid containing impurities after airborne sulfur emissions have been removed.

© 2019 Bloomberg L.P

https://gcaptain.com/singapore-imo-2020-low-sulphur-fuel-penalties/
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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #768 on: April 05, 2019, 07:23:35 pm »
Good news - strangely ;) censored
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The trend seems unstoppable
Good news - strangely censored...

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Even in the US!

It's headline news, right?

No it isn't.

FOX and CNN and the New York Times and the Washington Post and all the other news outlets that have covered for Monsanto for decades are keeping quiet about this global trend.

I find even many activists are unaware of the scope and scale of this post positive development.

Well, now the cat is out of the bag.

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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #769 on: April 14, 2019, 04:17:23 pm »
CleanTechnica
Support CleanTechnica’s work via donations on Patreon or PayPal!

Or just go buy a cool t-shirt, cup, baby outfit, bag, or hoodie.

April 14, 2019

Air Pollution Increases ER Visits — Largest US Study On The Topic Confirms It

By Cynthia Shahan

We may not even see them, but tiny particles, particulates in the PM2.5 size range, are able to travel deeply into the respiratory tract. PM2.5 infiltrates the lungs, all the way to the alveoli, where oxygen is transferred into the bloodstream. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and fine particulate matter, or PM, can cause grave trouble with one’s health.

Image courtesy US EPA

Those fine particles get into our bloodstream which affects every part of one’s body, and go to our brain as well. They worsen medical conditions such as asthma and heart disease.

Eye, nose, throat, and lung irritation, coughing, sneezing, runny nose and shortness of breath can all emerge from an overload to vulnerable human immune responses.

CleanTechnica reports continuously on air pollution studies, and there is always more study going on to examine the effects on babies, kids, adults, and the elderly. The BBC has a good piece titled “What does air pollution do to our bodies?“ Along with known links to cancer and other diseases, these fine particulates are suspected to offset growth in the young.

Emissions from traffic and poor choices in transit are one of the major causes of our dangerous air. Fresh air, a precious commodity, disappears as many fossil-powered cars, trucks, buses, and off-road vehicles (e.g., construction equipment, snowmobile, locomotive) emit fine particulates from their tailpipes.

A US study published online in the American Thoracic Society’s American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine signals that, as levels of ozone and fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) rise, more patients end up in the ER.

The reason: they struggle to breathe. It is not a comfortable experience. Worse, it can be life-threatening. Breathing problems due to air pollution, according to the study, have led to increased emergency room visits from patients of all ages.

“In ‘Age-specific Associations of Ozone and PM2.5 with Respiratory Emergency Department Visits in the U.S.,’ Heather M. Strosnider, PhD, MPH, and colleagues report on the associations between ground-level ozone and fine particulate pollution and ER visits for asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory infections.”

“Previous studies of ER visits related to respiratory illness have shown that children are particularly susceptible to air pollution, but those studies were mostly confined to a single city,” said Dr. Strosnider, lead health scientist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program). This study, however, looked at ER visits across hundreds of US counties.

“Ozone, the main ingredient of smog, and fine particulate pollution, microscopic particles that penetrate deep into the lung, are two important forms of air pollution in the U.S. The study looked at the levels of these two pollutants in 869 counties in the week prior to an ER visit for a breathing problem. The study included nearly 40 million ER visits for breathing problems from the counties, which represent 45 percent of the U.S. population.” The study found:

🚩 An association between ozone and respiratory ER visits among all age groups, with the strongest association in adults under age 65. Per 20 parts per billion (ppb) increase in ozone, the rate of an ER visit for respiratory problems increased 1.7 percent among children, 5.1 percent among adults under 65 and 3.3 percent among adults over 65.

🚩 Increased levels of ozone resulted in increased ER visits for asthma, acute respiratory infections, COPD and pneumonia. Overall the association was strongest for asthma among adults under 65. An association was found between fine particulate pollution (PM5) and respiratory ER visits among children and adults under the age of 65, with the strongest association among children. Per 10 microgram per cubic meter (µg/m3) increase in PM2.5, the rate of an ER visit increased 2.4 percent in children and 0.8 percent among adults under 65.

🚩 Increased levels of fine particulate matter resulted in increased visits for asthma, acute respiratory infections and pneumonia.


The authors wrote that their study findings support the Environmental Protection Agency’s “determination of a likely causal relationship between PM2.5 and respiratory effects and a causal relationship between ozone and respiratory effects.” However, they emphasized that their study also found important variations in those relationships based on the age of the patient, the pollutant, and the respiratory illness under consideration.

A CleanTechnica favorite, the movie The Human Element, takes this issue to heart and features some of the heroic voices of the children affected. Don’t miss hearing the children describe the daily work of breathing compromised air. The new film shows first hand the struggle affecting young students who must go to a special school rather than miss months of formal education.

This ATS study was funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (cdc.gov/ephtracking).

Tags: air pollution, Air Pollution and Respiratory Health, alveoli, American Thoracic Society, bloodstream, coughing, EPA, ER, fine particulates, Lungs, ozone, particulates, PM2.5, public health, Respiratory Emergency, Respiratory Health, runny nose, shortness of breath, sneezing, throat, tiny particles, truck


About the Author

Cynthia Shahan started writing by doing research as a social cultural and sometimes medical anthropology thinker. She studied and practiced both Waldorf education, and Montessori education. Eventually becoming an organic farmer, licensed AP, anthropologist, and mother of four unconditionally loving spirits, teachers, and environmentally conscious beings born with spiritual insights and ethics beyond this world. (She was able to advance more in this way led by her children.)


https://cleantechnica.com/2019/04/14/air-pollution-increases-er-visits-largest-us-study-on-the-topic-confirms-it/

Agelbert COMMENT:
Thank you Cynthia Shahan 👍, for this truth filled article.

THIS is the 🦖😈🦕 Fossil Fuel Industry's attitude towards the pollution they produce (and profit from):


To think that we-the-people are being coerced 24/7 to subsidize the government welfare queen fossil fuel polluters that are killing us and the rest of the biosphere is very depressing. A study should be conducted to find out how many people are now medicating themselves due to the realization that our government is corrupt and stupid beyond measure.



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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #770 on: April 16, 2019, 01:30:49 pm »


Sulphur-Sniffing Drone to Sniff Out Polluters in Danish Waters
April 15, 2019 by gCaptain

sulphur sniffing drone Photo courtesy Danish Maritime Authority

Authorities in Denmark have deployed a large sulphur-sniffing drone to literally sniff out ships breaking EU rules governing the sulphur content of marine fuel.

The drone is being used by the Danish Maritime Agency to monitor ship emissions around the area of the Great Belt, where a number of large tankers transit to and from the Baltic Sea. The first aerial sulphur emission inspection took place on a ship in the area on April 11.

Known officially as a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System, the drone is fitted with a so-called gas “sniffer” system that capable of measuring sulphur emissions by flying into the ship’s exhaust gas plume.

The payload also includes daylight and infrared cameras, as well as an AIS receiver.

The drone technology is provided by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) as a means of preventing ship pollution by ensuring compliance with the legal requirements for European Emission Control Areas (ECA), limiting the amount of sulphur in marine fuel to 0.10%.

“These kinds of RPAS operations are expected to contribute to a more efficient enforcement of the Sulphur Directive, thereby reducing air pollution from ships while ensuring a level playing field for the companies involved,” the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) says.

In Denmark, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for enforcing the sulphur rules, while the the Danish Maritime Authority conducts ship inspections in Danish ports and now also with drone monitoring.

https://gcaptain.com/denmark-sulphur-limit-drone/
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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #771 on: April 16, 2019, 02:01:51 pm »


April 15, 2019 by The Loadstar

Quote
The French proposals, submitted at the end of last month and seen by The Loadstar, call for a two-step approach of short-term measures to cut GHG emissions in shipping. 👍

They include regulating ship speeds on a sector by sector basis 👍, followed by the adoption of globally applicable annual emissions caps 👍 based on each ship’s output.

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AGelbert

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Re: Pollution
« Reply #772 on: April 17, 2019, 08:34:43 pm »
APRIL 12, 2019

By Joe McCarthy

How Drones Are Saving Myanmar's Mangrove Forests   

Conservationists are using drone technology to plant thousands of trees per day to restore areas affected by deforestation.


SNIPPET:

Biocarbon Engineering is working with the Myanmar-based nonprofit Worldview International Foundation (WIF) to oversee the project. WIF has already worked with local villages to plant six million trees since 2012, but the drones now make the project exponentially easier.

The drones work by first mapping deforested areas and analyzing the topography. Then they fire biodegradable pods into ideal locations. Sometimes the pods get displaced, so it’s essential for local communities to be involved to make sure the saplings can flourish.

Mangroves are resilient trees that thrive in coastal areas, where their tendril-like roots weave through swamps and shallow bodies of water. In many parts of the world, mangroves are critical to the integrity of coastal communities — they foster food sources, absorb carbon, improve air and water quality, and defend areas against sea level rise and storms.

Despite these benefits, mangroves are being destroyed at an alarming rate — up to five times faster than forests elsewhere in the world, according to the United Nations. So far, nearly a quarter of all mangroves have been destroyed.

The primary drivers of this deforestation are development for coastal communities and aquaculture.


Full article:

https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/drones-myanmar-mangroves/
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Re: Pollution
« Reply #773 on: April 28, 2019, 02:40:03 pm »
Video: Dried-up Aral Sea springs back to life
1,125,690 views


FRANCE 24 English

Published on Sep 18, 2017
Subscribe to France 24 now:
http://f24.my/youtubeEN

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Straddling the border between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea was once the fourth-largest saline lake in the world, an inland sea of 66,000 square kilometres. But in 1950, the Soviets diverted the two rivers that fed it in order to irrigate fields and grow cotton. Little by little, the Aral Sea dried up, ruining thousands of livelihoods. Since the construction of a dam in 2005, the water is slowly beginning to rise, and with it residents' hopes. FRANCE 24 went to meet them.

http://www.france24.com/en/taxonomy/e...

Visit our website:
http://www.france24.com
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May 9th, 2019 by Steve Hanley

Fully Recyclable Plastics Breakthrough! This Could Change Everything

Plastics today are made up of large molecules called polymers which in turn are created from shorter compounds called monomers. Then those polymers are mixed with additives that make them suitable for a particular purpose. Some make a plastic tough. Others make it flexible. Still others change its color. But those additives create strong chemical bonds with the polymers. Breaking those bonds is next to impossible in any cost effective way.

That’s what makes it so hard to recycle plastics. All recycling plants do is chop up all the waste plastic that comes in the door into small bits. When the chopped-up plastic is melted to make a new material, it’s hard to predict which properties it will inherit from the original plastics.

“Circular plastics and plastics upcycling are grand challenges,” says Brett Helms, a staff scientist at Berkeley’s Molecular Foundry. “We’ve already seen the impact of plastic waste leaking into our aquatic ecosystems, and this trend is likely to be exacerbated by the increasing amounts of plastics being manufactured and the downstream pressure it places on our municipal recycling infrastructure.”

The researchers went back to basic principles. This time, instead of inventing plastics that never breakdown, they focused on recyclability from the beginning. The result is a new kind of plastic called polydiketoenamine or PDK. Their report on PDKs has been published recently in the journal Nature Chemistry. “With PDKs, the immutable bonds of conventional plastics are replaced with reversible bonds that allow the plastic to be recycled more effectively,” Helms says.

Unlike conventional plastics, the monomers of PDK plastic can be recovered and freed from any additives simply by dunking the material in a highly acidic solution. The acid helps to break the bonds between the monomers and separates them from the chemical additives that give plastics their look and feel, according to a report by Science Daily.

Read more:

https://cleantechnica.com/2019/05/09/fully-recyclable-plastics-breakthrough-this-could-change-everything/

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