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Author Topic: 🚩 Global Climate Chaos ☠️  (Read 76095 times)

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Re: 🚩 Global Climate Chaos ☠️
« Reply #90 on: August 24, 2014, 03:10:06 pm »
MORE EXTERNALIZED COSTS thanks to the fossil fuel foes  of humanity.  >:(
Unlike the Fossil Fueler GREEDBALLS  of this world, PNAS really DOES DO THE MATH! 

Our findings indicate that under future levels of atmospheric CO2, T. radicans may grow larger and become more noxious than it is today. Given the global distribution of this and other closely related species, these results have implications for forest dynamics and human health. Increased abundance of woody vines in old-growth and fragmented forests is reducing tree regeneration and increasing tree mortality in tropical (18, 19, 22, 23) and temperate (20, 21) regions.

Biomass and toxicity responses of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) to elevated atmospheric CO2
Jacqueline E. Mohan * , † , ‡ , § ,
Lewis H. Ziska ¶ ,
William H. Schlesinger * , ‖ , § ,
Richard B. Thomas **,
Richard C. Sicher ¶ ,
Kate George ¶ , and
James S. Clark * , ‖

Contact with poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) is one of the most widely reported ailments at poison centers in the United States, and this plant has been introduced throughout the world, where it occurs with other allergenic members of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Approximately 80% of humans develop dermatitis upon exposure to the carbon-based active compound, urushiol. It is not known how poison ivy might respond to increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), but previous work done in controlled growth chambers shows that other vines exhibit large growth enhancement from elevated CO2. Rising CO2 is potentially responsible for the increased vine abundance that is inhibiting forest regeneration and increasing tree mortality around the world. In this 6-year study at the Duke University Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment, we show that elevated atmospheric CO2 in an intact forest ecosystem increases photosynthesis, water use efficiency, growth, and population biomass of poison ivy. The CO2 growth stimulation exceeds that of most other woody species. Furthermore, high-CO2 plants produce a more allergenic form of urushiol. Our results indicate that Toxicodendron taxa will become more abundant and more “toxic” in the future, potentially affecting global forest dynamics and human health.

Poison ivy [Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze] ranks among the most medically problematic plants in the United States (1, 2), annually causing >350,000 reported cases of human contact dermatitis (3). Its active component, urushiol, could be used for simulating the transmittal and subsequent symptoms of chemical warfare agents for the U.S. military (4). T. radicans is widely distributed and abundant in North America and also occurs in Central America, parts of Asia, Bermuda, and the Bahama Islands (5). It has been introduced in Europe (6, 7) and South Africa ( 8 ) and also in Australia and New Zealand, where it has become invasive and caused reported cases of contact dermatitis (9).

Other allergenic Toxicodendron species occur in much of the world (10–12). Consequently, the response of Toxicodendron to global environmental change, particularly the current increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, bears consequences for human health on a panoptic scale.

Although the response of poison ivy to changing CO2 has not been investigated previously, various vine species show large photosynthetic and growth increases with CO2 enrichment when grown in noncompetitive conditions in enclosed, indoor growth chambers with optimal resource levels (13–15) and in low-light chambers simulating forest understory environments (16). In the first year of a 2-year field study in Tennessee, an exotic vine species (Lonicera japonica) grew significantly faster at elevated CO2 (17). Stimulation of biomass production likely results from a positive feedback of high CO2 for vines: With an increase in CO2 concentration and a corresponding increase in photosynthesis, vines can allocate more photosynthate to additional photosynthetic tissue, because of a low allocation to support tissue relative to other woody growth forms (13, 14, 18, 19). Increasing abundance of woody vines is causing increased tree mortality and reduced tree regeneration in forests around the globe (18, 20–23), potentially resulting in shifts in community composition that may impact carbon cycling and biodiversity (23). Although it is unclear how elevated CO2 will affect the growth of vines in forest environments, the contemporary increase in woody vine abundance may be the result of rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (19, 23).

When grown under low resource levels and/or in competitive environments, plants often show small growth enhancements from increased concentrations of CO2 (24, 25). In competitive environments such as forest understories, plant growth may be limited by noncarbon resources such as soil moisture and nutrients. In such cases, additional photosynthate produced under elevated CO2 may be allocated to carbon sinks, such as the generation of secondary carbon-based compounds (26). Thus, production of urushiol, the 3-n pentadecylcatechol hydrocarbon whose reaction with the human immune system is responsible for Toxicodendron dermatitis (27), may increase under elevated CO2.

In this 6-year study at the Duke University Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment, we assessed the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 (200 μl/liter above the ambient level of ≈370 μl/liter and representing the predicted global concentration at the middle of this century; ref. 28) on in situ growth and survivorship of poison ivy in an intact forest environment. Additionally, we determined effects of increased CO2 on photosynthesis, water use, and production of five variants of the secondary compound, urushiol. The human dermatitis response to poison ivy is correlated with the ratio of [unsaturated:saturated] urushiol congeners (29, 30); the higher the relative unsaturated component, the more “poisonous” the plant is to humans.

Full peer reviewed article and scholarly references at link below:


Toxicodendron radicans

Ya gonna need an OCEAN, of Calamine lotion ... THANKS TO FOSSIL FUEL FORKS!  >:(  Make em' PAY for their DAMAGE! 

Rob not the poor, because he is poor: neither oppress the afflicted in the gate:
For the Lord will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those that spoiled them. Pr. 22:22-23


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