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AGelbert

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Re: Future Earth
« Reply #225 on: February 12, 2017, 09:43:06 pm »
The End of the World As We Know It (part 2)

Published on Dec 20, 2016


Dr. Guy McPherson is an award-winning professor of conservation biology and an acclaimed author. This two-part show covers his presentation at The Waypost in Portland on August 8, 2016 of a synopsis of the current peer-reviewed research on Earth's recent phase of rapid warming. His conclusion about the risk to humans from habitat loss in the next 10 - 15 years due to abrupt climate change is dire. He answers questions about the impact of humans on the environment. This is an information-packed, entertaining and impactful talk. Not for the faint of heart!

This show was taped by PC Peri and produced/edited by Barb Greene with help from Dan Handelman. Special thanks to Alisa Christensen for her inspiration on editing.

For your information, the chapter breaks we assigned for this video are:

Part 2: 0:00 Opening Credits 1:15 Dr. McPherson: It's too late, Baby, now 4:26 Pursue a life of excellence and love 5:47 Create 10:17 Question and Answer: Buddhism offers a way forward 11:35 Q&A: Right action 15:33 Q&A: Can we incentivize right action? 18:13 Q&A: What if we hadn't used fossil fuels? 19:15 Q&A: Do governments know? 23:01 Q&A: Where might humans survive? 27:15 End credits, part 2

You can use these times to find a particular section if you want to jump to a certain portion of the show.
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AGelbert

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Re: Future Earth
« Reply #226 on: March 06, 2017, 01:27:08 pm »

How and Why Collapse Happens

Quote
Posted on March 2, 2017, by Radio Ecoshock

We take our civilization for granted. But it’s fragile and pushing way beyond sustainable limits. How and why do civilizations collapse? In this program, we’ll hear from specialists who studied the end times of the Indus civilization of India and Pakistan, and the Maya of Central America. Then we’ll wrap up with a tough solution for our tough problems: a new book outlines how we could use World War Two style mobilization to save the climate and the ecosphere from their developing collapse. Our three guests are Cameron Petrie, Takeshi Inomata, and Laurence Delina.

You are tuned to the Radio Ecoshock special on collapse – how, why, and how to avoid it. That’s three interviews. Let’s get going.

Download or listen to this program in CD Quality (57 MB) or Lo-Fi (14 MB) at link below:

http://www.ecoshock.org/2017/03/how-and-why-collapse-happens.html

Agelbert NOTE: The way things are going right now, Tomorrow IS Yesterday (on extinction STEROIDS!).  :P

Dateline 2024: The Triumph of 8 years of Trump's Successful Deregulation of the Fossil Fuel Industry
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AGelbert

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Re: Future Earth
« Reply #227 on: March 30, 2017, 08:34:20 pm »

Business News | Wed Mar 29, 2017 | 7:34am EDT

Daimler accelerates electric car program

Mercedes-Benz owner Daimler (DAIGn.DE) is accelerating its electric car program, it said on Wednesday after announcing that it had failed to cut fleet emissions in Europe for the first time since 2007.

Daimler put its emissions numbers down to customers increasing preference for sports utility vehicles (SUVs), which tend to be more polluting than sedans, making it more difficult for carmakers to hit a European target for each new car to produce no more than 95 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer by 2020.

The company said it expects Mercedes-Benz Cars to bring more than 10 new electric cars to market by 2022 through 10 billion euros ($10.8 billion) of investment, having previously aimed to achieve the target by 2025.
 
Daimler has been set a goal of achieving a European average fleet emissions level of 100 grams for Mercedes-Benz Cars, including its Smart brand, by 2020.
 
Last year the average fuel emissions remained at 123 grams for Mercedes-Benz Cars, the same level as in 2015. It is the first time since 2007 that it has failed to cut average pollution levels despite the introduction of more fuel efficient engines throughout its range.

Daimler also said it is expecting record sales volumes for the Mercedes-Benz Cars division in the first quarter of the year.
 
"The positive sales trend continued in March," Daimler said in a statement ahead of its annual shareholder meeting.

The company also reiterated its full-year group sales and earnings targets. The car and truck maker expects a slight increase in earnings and a significant rise in sales of Mercedes-Benz Cars.


(Reporting by Ilona Wissenbach and Edward Taylor; Writing by Victoria Bryan; Editing by Christoph Steitz and David Goodman)


http://www.reuters.com/article/us-daimler-agm-idUSKBN1700N7

Agelbert NOTE: The Daimler move is just the tip of the Renewable Energy Iceberg that has just been reenergized by Trump behavior.  

You see, Mr. Trump, this is the way Germans respond when you insult them. They don't just get mad, they get a lot more than "even".


They KNOW your stunt of presenting a bill for NATO services owed by Germany had NOTHING to do with reality. They KNOW that your masters, the Fossil Fuel Fascists (plus the nuke puke power plant cheerleaders) have been trying to undermine and discredit Germany's tremendously successful transition to Renewable Energy for DECADES.


The Germans get it (finally!). The US Gooberment is OWNED by the Fossil Fuel Fascists, of which Trump is the latest tool/fool.   :P

Therefore, the Germans will now make the massive transition they have already made look like small potatoes. WHY? Because it is now a matter of national pride, not simply Renewable Energy. And everybody knows how single minded the Germans can be when the issue is National Pride. Making Germans angry is never a good idea.

As I predicted last November, when fascists come to power, they shoot themselves in the foot by going quickly into overreach mode. Trump, on several fronts, not just foreign policy, has just destroyed his political future and SHORTENED the future of the polluting energy bastards that own him. Right wing crazies never learn, thank God!  :D 


The fossil Fuel Fascists and Nuke Pukes in the USA will rue the day they insulted the Germans.

From your lips to God's ear. And not a moment too soon.


Surly.



The fossil Fuel Fascists and Nuke Pukes in the USA will rue the day they insulted the Germans.

From your lips to God's ear. And not a moment too soon.


I wish that were true but all they are doing is to try and get as much as they can for themselves.  Having done that they will not rue the day.  They are not willing or trying to learn a lesson.  The only thing they are willing to learn is anything that supports their agenda and nothing else.

Sharks with a conscience they are not.


True, they don't have a conscience. But they can, despite their pretense of not doing so, count the environmental costs they plan to saddle we-the-people with. They KNOW the S.C.C. (Social Cost of Carbon) FAR exceeds the cost of a rapid transition to Renewables, despite the gamed numbers coming from the Heritage Foundation of Right wing rats and assorted fossil fuel fascist lackeys.

Yes, they can try to strangle Renewable Energy by in-your-face corruption like making it "illegal" (They are trying that in Wyoming   :evil4:) or just high "fees" or whatever to keep the fossil fuel welfare queens afloat a while longer. 

But there is simply NO WAY that they can pretend all costs NOW upon us and increasing every year from global warming can be ignored. It's too late to save the polluters from a LOT of grief from we-the-people, no matter how hard the Trump Wrecking Crew tries to pass that buck onto anyone but them.

ADD to that a tsunami of CHEAP solar, wind AND e-cars from Germany, China, etc. (and so on) and it's CURTAINS for fossil fuel fascist political power.  :icon_sunny:

Yeah, it'll get real bad here. Yeah, it's probably too late to avoid a massive collapse with BILLIONS of dead people. But the conscience free cretins, despite all their slick propaganda efforts, WILL HAVE A BULLSEYE painted on their backs for as long as they live.  :emthup:

I recently answered a confused fellow who is still sitting on the fence in regard to Global Warming and how burning fossil fuels is causing Catastrophic climate change.

"The trouble I have with the whole "climate change" discussion is why this warming trend is bad."   

I answered:
It's BAD because most of the effects HAVE NOT been felt. IOW, the OCEAN is a HEAT TIME BOMB that we do not have the technology to handle.

Also, the greening of latitudes near the poles will NOT compensate for the browning near the equator BECAUSE over 80% of all the land species in the biosphere (BOTH flora and fauna) occupy the tropics.

Finally, ocean acidification, if not stopped by a MASSIVE international effort to prevent more CO2 pollution from the burning of fossil fuels, guarantees MOST of the shell forming species (which happen to be food for ALL of the larger fish species we eat) will die along with most of the Oxygen producing algae (ocean phytoplankton), which now provides HALF (or more) of the Oxygen we get. That's right, at least HALF of all photosynthesis comes from ocean algae, NOT land based plants. And then there's the deforestation on land... Do you get the picture?


The ocean CANNOT continue that massive absorption of CO2 for more than another decade or so before saturation is reached, acidification causes massive phytoplankton and shell forming species die offs. AND THEN MOST OF THE HEAT GOES DIRECTLY INTO THE ATMOSPHERE (as opposed to a mere 2.3% now).

If anybody thinks the oceans will continue to buffer our giant carbon pollution, they are living in la la land (or work for the fossil fuel industry — but I repeat myself).

EVERY POLITICIAN, be they a Democrat or Republican, that takes a nickel from the fossil fuel industry should be THROWN OUT IN 2018, OR SOONER.

In January of 2017, NASA released data confirming that globally, 2016 was the hottest year on record -- the third consecutive year this record has been broken. Even more disturbing, in the last three years alone global temperatures rose 0.4°C: an extreme acceleration of planetary warming that has been unmatched in 136 years of record keeping.

According to the reinsurance giant Munich Re, the US had more floods in 2016 than any year in recorded history with 19 different floods swamping the nation.

http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/39540-viewing-trump-s-extreme-climate-denial-from-a-small-island-nation-in-peril

Trump will HAVE TO deal with gargantuan level extreme climate events that hurt RICH PEOPLE, not just most people, at a rate we have never experienced, PERIOD. If the insurance companies will accept eating those costs when they KNOW the gooberment helped exacerbate them by ignoring hard scientific evidence, they are stupid. Insurance companies are MUCH smarter than fossil fuel fascists. Trump's wrecking crew will soon collapse.

Speaking of collapse, I saw a video that you will enjoy. It's an excellent collapse compendium, so to speak. I'm sure you know about many of Guy McPherson's biographical details, but it's still good viewing. It's too bad the Doomstead Diner isn't included in the collapsnicks mentioned. I think the DD has been a big part of the collapse-a-sphere.  :icon_mrgreen: 


Documentary: Somewhere in New Mexico Before the End of Time       


Published on Mar 14, 2017

'Somewhere in New Mexico Before the End of Time' -- A powerful, emotive, masterful production by documentary filmmaker Mike Soseby -- tells two narratives at once.

One narrative portrays some of the insanity of industrial civilisation and the culture of empire/consumerism, which is in the process of abruptly rendering the Earth largely, or perhaps completely, uninhabitable for humans and other large mammals -- potentially in less than 10 years -- As a consequence of escalating pollution and the conversion of the natural world into stuff.

And the other narrative depicts the valiant efforts of Professor Emeritus Guy R. McPherson to challenge the culture of empire and consumerism, whom leads by example towards more sustainable ways of living. The hubris inherent to the myth of human superiority has now reached irreversible tipping points, and the consequences of such coupled with the appalling impotence of the human population in addressing Climate Change and Peak Oil, and/or taking any viable action thereafter over the last 40 years, indicates that the human species can only expect one inevitable outcome -- Extinction...       
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Faith,
if it has not works, is dead, being alone.

AGelbert

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Re: Future Earth
« Reply #228 on: April 15, 2017, 03:36:46 pm »
Inconvenient Technology (for the Fossil Fuel Industry)       


Device patented last year makes fuel from sea water
 

This thing ACTUALLY WORKS in the real world. All you need is a bunch of solar panels on a ship (in this case, it's a US Navy aircraft carrier).

I'm sure the fossil fuel industry is NOT interested in this being given to the public. It was patented by NREL. Consequently, the government can keep us from using it FOREVER (national security is one of those convenient excuses that makes it legal to keep an invention out of public hands      ).

But the point is, IT WORKS. There is NO DISCUSSION as to whether it works or not, even if somebody will probably will show up here and poo poo it with some bullshit about the "superior" ERoEI of fossil fuels. ::) That doesn't fly here because solar energy is plentiful in the ocean AND the RATE of production on a ship does not require refinery rapidity. This can END all use of fuel requirements for ships now met by the petroleum industry.  :icon_mrgreen: So, I'm sure the fossil fuelers are going out of their way to make sure the public never gets its hands on this.   

I've read about it and the excuse given for not going whole hog with this is that it's sort of an energy quandary. The process requires more energy than they get out of it from the fuel (mostly for jet fuel but ANY hydrocarbon can be synthetically produced with it). Since dissolved Carbonates from CO2 in sea water are used to make the fuel, it's carbon neutral jet fuel that is produced! The CATCH is that, if you use bunker fuel to run a diesel generator that produces the electricity to make the jet fuel, you use MORE bunker fuel than the jet fuel you get out of it. The OBVIOUS solution, that they don't seem to want to talk about for some reason  ;), is getting the electricity from the sun to run the Electrolytic Cation Exchange Module.        

YES, the amount of electricity this process requires can EASILY be met and exceeding by ship board solar power (ESPECIALLY on an aircraft Carrier!).

And NO, they don't need to get it from the nuclear reactor, boys and girls.  ;D

So, if they GET the electricity (which does the work) from the sun, it DOESN'T MATTER that it uses a lot of energy to make the fuel.

And, anyway, if they ran the energy numbers of transporting fossil fuels to the ships (as long as defenders of the polluting fossil fuel industry aren't doing that "math"      ), it would ACTUALLY require a whole lot less energy to get that fuel made on the ship than a full cycle ERoEI of fossil fuel based fuels from the well to the refinery to the ship. 

THIS IS the final NAIL in the fossil fuel coffin. 

NOW the only recourse they have that can keep their polluting business model going is in-your-face government corruption and the deep sixing of this invention by cynically, fraudulently and mendaciously claiming it can't be released (or even used on military ships!) because of "national security". 

IT'S NOW OVER for the "high energy density" makes fossil fuel better" argument BECAUSE these are carbon neutral HYDROCARBON FUELS of FAR SUPERIOR QUALITY. WHY? Because they DO NOT have high sulfur or other crude oil contaminants to strip out in the production. This is TOP GRADE JP-"place a number here for different jet fuel grades" (e.g. JP-4). They can make TOP GRADE GASOLINE (they made gasoline for a P-51 Mustang engine) from it too! 


NRL patents process for turning seawater into fuel 

By Kevin McCaney

Jun 08, 2016

The Naval Research Laboratory has been working on finding a nearly unlimited source of fuel—the sea—and now has the validation of a patent to show for it.

NRL’s Material Science and Technology Division has received a patent for its Electrolytic Cation Exchange Module (E-CEM), which separates carbon dioxide and hydrogen from seawater and then producing  hydrocarbons to be used as fuel.


Tests of the process have to date been conducted on a small scale—in April 2014, E-CEM was used to create fuel of a scale model of the P-51 Mustang—but the process has the potential to scale up to practical applications, NRL said in a release. 

“A ship's ability to produce a significant fraction of the battle group's fuel for operations at sea could reduce the mean time between refueling, and increase the operational flexibility and time on station,” said Cmdr. Felice DiMascio of the Naval Reserve, one of five contributors and inventors named on the patent. “Reducing the logistics tail on fuel delivery with the potential to increase the Navy's energy security and independence, with minimal impact on the environment, were key factors in the development of this program.”

NRL currently is scaling up its process to create larger amounts of fuel, although it’s still a long way from being able to power, say, a boat or a plane. “Building on the success of the first exchange module, we have scaled-up the carbon capture process to improve efficiency and substantially increase feedstock production,” said Dr. Heather Willauer, NRL research chemist. “Using a scaled-up, second generation E-CEM prototype, we will substantially increase CO2 and H2 production capable of producing up to one gallon of fuel per day, an increase nearly 40 times greater than with the earlier generation E-CEM.”


Researchers at NRL's Marine Corrosion Facility in Key West, Fla., are working to optimize the two processes involved in fuel production—the recovery of hydrogen and CO2, and their synthesis into hydrocarbons.
Quote
NRL said it recently partnered with a commercial entity to test its catalyst as it switches from its initial small plug flow chemical reactor to a large-scale chemical reactor, and hopes to have the two processes working at Key West by the end of the year.

In addition to DiMascio and Willauer, the other researchers named on the patent are Dennis Hardy and Frederick Williams of NRL and Kathleen Lewis of the Office of Naval Research.
 

About the Author

 Kevin McCaney is a former editor of Defense Systems and GCN.

https://defensesystems.com/articles/2016/06/08/nrl-e-cem-seawater-into-fuel.aspx

Agelbert NOTE: The "end of the year" was 4 months ago. Sure, Trump's wrecking crew is going to squelch this thing on behalf of the fossil fuel industry.      BUT, ANYBODY (Hi Palloy  ;)) that jumps on the low production rate or some other bit of hair splitting, straw grasping bullshit to claim "it won't work" or "it's not ready for prime time" is making a baseless argument simply BECAUSE, if this did not WORK, they could NEVER HAVE PATENTED IT!

THE INSTANT the fossil fuel industry learned of that patent, THIS WAS THEIR REACTION. 

THEN they went into overdrive to kill this fantastic invention. I hope your realize that this also represents a method of keeping the oceans from destructive acidification, as well as rapid CO2 sequestration if scaled up.  :o  ;D

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AGelbert

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Re: Future Earth
« Reply #229 on: April 18, 2017, 07:08:21 pm »
Coming soon? Air conditioners without compressors using far less energy to cool? 

What is Laser Cooling?     

This video will introduce you with the a laser cooling lab. The working and cooling of hot air up to absolute zero is also shown here.  :o 

http://www.dnatube.com/video/29076/What-is-Laser-Cooling

Agelbert NOTE: This is a BIG deal. WHY? Because, as much as I hate to admit it, this provides a way to escape the temperature effects (but NOT the ocean acidification effects!) of global warming.

This counterintuitive process gives the appearance of violating the second law of thermodynamics because it uses laser energy to COOL a gas or liquid.

Quote
The German scientist Rudolf Clausius laid the foundation for the second law of thermodynamics in 1850 by examining the relation between heat transfer and work. His formulation of the second law, which was published in German in 1854, is known as the Clausius statement:

Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_law_of_thermodynamics

But laser cooling doesn't violate the above law, of course. ;D  So, how does it work it's magic of cooling, instead of heating, while ADDING energy to a system? ???

A tuned set of lasers is fired at a gas or a liquid. This uses energy. BUT the targeted gas or liquid does NOT heat up in this case; it RADICALLY COOLS!

Temperature is, as everybody knows, just a measurement of how fast the atoms/molecules are moving around in a given 3 dimensional space. Faster moving atomic mass is hotter while slower is cooler. Absolute zero temperature is full atom stop (in theory  ;)).

The trick is making use of a weird property of photons which enables them to have momentum WITHOUT mass. The photons hit the target, transfer their momentum (but no mass) and SLOW the molecules down, making them real cold real fast.

The casual observer will scratch his head   and ask WHY the momentum doesn't make some of the atoms/molecules go faster (by hitting them from behind instead of head on), since molecules are going in every which way all the time. ???

I mean, shouldn't it all sort of even out?     

NOPE.

THAT has to do with photon frequencies. All atoms/molecules have absorption frequencies. A CO2 molecule will absorb high energy photons (UV band) and emit lower energy photons (IR band) which cannot get out of the earth's atmosphere. That's how global warming got going.

Well, the tuned laser photons (in the video below, they mention using six of them in GPS satellites for atomic clock cooling) do not hit atoms/molecules going AWAY from them because their frequency enables them to "miss" them (no photon momentum absorption due to Doppler effect frequency difference  ).

Quote
In the process of absorbing a photon, the atom receives a small push, a push in the direction away from the source of light, which is the key to laser cooling.
https://www.learner.org/courses/physics/visual/animation.html?shortname=PHY05_laser_cooling

The end result is billions of molecules slowing down and getting real cold, real quick as a consequence of a teeny tiny amount of laser energy injected to do the cooling.

I hope you realize that this means we will soon have air conditioners that use MUCH LESS ENERGY (look ma, no compressor!). It's painfully obvious that lasers, BECAUSE they shoot ZERO MASS photons (there ain't any other kind of photons  ;D), will require much less energy to cool down a gas than present refrigeration technology.

AND, they won't need any fancy refrigeration gas or fluid. WATER will do quite nicely for an ICE box refrigerator or air conditioner, thank you very much. 

 
Like I said before, THIS IS BIG! 

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AGelbert

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Re: Future Earth
« Reply #230 on: April 24, 2017, 02:34:51 pm »
Agelbert NOTE: Republican Climate Change Denying Florida will eventually be swamped by the ocean, not just from sea level rise, but much sooner by SINKING from a DISSOLVING coral base.
There is a God.

How an Argument Led to a Big Discovery: An Interview with USGS Scientist Kim Yates

Posted On April 24, 2017 by Sarah Cooley

Dr. Kim Yates, research oceanographer with the U.S. Geological Survey. Credit: Benjamin Drummond for Ocean Conservancy. (at article link)

The Ocean Conservancy ocean acidification team has spent time in Florida over the past year talking with fishermen and scientists to better understand how changes in ocean chemistry are affecting Florida’s coastal communities and its marine resources, including its iconic coral reefs and fish. On our most recent visit, we interviewed Dr. Kim Yates, an oceanographer with the U.S. Geological Survey, who is an expert on ocean acidification impacts on coral reef ecosystems about vanishing sea floors and how arguing with a boat captain led her to a major scientific discovery.

Ocean Conservancy: Dr. Yates, how does ocean acidification affect coral reefs and the ecosystems around them?

Dr. Kim Yates: The animals that create coral reefs thrive in a particular range of pH and carbonate, which is a chemical they use to help build their skeletons. Reefs provide habitat for fish and other reef life, but the skeletons of reef organisms also naturally break down and make sand. And much of that sand supports a lot of ecosystems around the reef. That sand also helps nourish beaches along coral reef coastlines. Ocean acidification causes reefs to slow down their growth rate, and when that happens, they don’t break down into as much sand that supports the surrounding ecosystems and even the beaches. And when the pH of seawater decreases from ocean acidification, it can actually even cause the sand that’s made out of that carbonate material to start dissolving.

OC: But corals only border some areas of Florida. Why should the whole state pay attention to ocean acidification?  ???

KY: One of the most unique and interesting things about the state of Florida is that our entire state sits on top of what we call a carbonate platform, or rock made out of the same material as coral skeletons. We don’t know how ocean acidification is going to affect the bedrock that supports our entire state. When ocean acidification decreases the pH of seawater, it can cause that carbonate material to dissolve. So this problem of ocean acidification is not just localized to our coral reefs, or to our shellfish beds, it’s a statewide problem for Florida.

OC: What inspired you to look at Florida’s bedrock and sand, and not just living corals?

KY: That research actually started with an argument I had with a boat captain. One day we were working out in the Florida Keys on a reef and I was snorkeling around, looking for a place to put some instrumentation down on the sea floor. And the captain told me to motion to him when I found a good place and he would bring to boat over, close enough so we could put the instrumentation on the sea floor. So I looked around, and I found the spot, and I motioned to the boat captain, but the boat captain wouldn’t come over. And so I motioned to the boat captain again and he still wouldn’t come over. And so, somewhat frustrated, I swam all the way back to the boat and I said, “Captain, you told me to let you know when I wanted you to come over and anchor the boat. And you wouldn’t come. What’s going on?” He said, “I can’t bring the boat over there. It’s only two feet deep.” I looked at him and said, “No, there’s 12 feet of water over there.” And he said, “No there’s not,” and he pulled out the chart, and he laid it on the table and said, “See, it’s only 2 feet deep.” Sure enough, the chart said two feet deep. I had to put him in the water and swim him over to show him there was actually 12 feet of water there.  :o

Thinking about it later, I realized there was either a serious problem with the nautical chart or we were missing ten feet of sea floor in that location. As it turns out, many modern day nautical charts actually combine sea floor or water depth data from decades past. So if you’re looking at a 2010 nautical chart, it might combine data measured by hand from the 1870s and the 1930s and the 1950s as well as modern data measured by satellite. And so we launched a large-scale investigation, comparing all of the historical water depth data to modern elevation data.

Dr. Yates prepares her equipment to collect data. Photo Credit: Benjamin Drummond for Ocean Conservancy. (at article link)

OC: What did your research show?

KY: We discovered that coral reef degradation in Florida has caused a dramatic decrease in regional sea floor elevation. In other words, coral reef breakdown is flattening the sea floor.

But coral reefs and a bumpy sea floor are important for slowing down big waves. When you stand on a beach and watch surfers, they are usually way offshore because that’s where the big waves are. You can see those big waves breaking offshore, and the surfers ride them as they are breaking. But, by the time the waves reach the beach where you are standing, they are much smaller. That’s because coral reef structure and shallow seafloor breaks the big waves up offshore before they make it to the beach. When you lose that shallow seafloor or coral reef structure, or both, those big waves can make it to the beach before they break up. There, they will cause more erosion and damage along the coastline. The shallow seafloor and coral reefs act as a natural barrier that breaks up large waves before they hit the coastline.

South Florida is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise because the highest areas on land in the Florida Keys are only about six feet above sea level. So when you have incoming storm waves, everyday waves and coastal erosion, it’s much more concerning when you’re only living about six feet above sea level. Reefs are a key defense protecting us from ocean waves. Our research is going to help USGS better predict how these changes are going to affect these coastal communities today and into the future.

Dr. Yates’ research made the front page of the Miami Herald on April 21. Learn more about how she and her fellow scientists have uncovered the phenomenon of a vanishing sea floor off the coast of Florida.

http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2017/04/24/how-an-argument-led-to-a-big-discovery-an-interview-with-usgs-scientist-kim-yates/#more-14228
Leges         Sine    Moribus     Vanae   
Faith,
if it has not works, is dead, being alone.

 

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