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Introduction to cancer biology
« Reply #15 on: July 31, 2014, 02:30:39 am »
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #16 on: April 05, 2015, 12:37:51 am »
One dollar blood test  :o  ;D using gold nanoparticles outperforms PSA screen for prostate cancer, study suggests

Date: April 3, 2015

Source: University of Central Florida

Dr. Qun "Treen" Huo of UCF's NanoScience Technology Center has developed a prostate cancer test using gold nanoparticles. Pilot studies found it to be more accurate than the standard PSA test.

Credit: Image courtesy of University of Central Florida

A test that costs less than a $1 and yields results in minutes has been shown in newly published studies to be more sensitive and more exact than the current standard test for early-stage prostate cancer.

The simple test developed by University of Central Florida scientist Qun "Treen" Huo holds the promise of earlier detection of one of the deadliest cancers among men. It would also reduce the number of unnecessary and invasive biopsies stemming from the less precise PSA test that's now used.

"It's fantastic," said Dr. Inoel Rivera, a urologic oncologist at Florida Hospital Cancer Institute, which collaborated with Huo on the recent pilot studies. "It's a simple test. It's much better than the test we have right now, which is the PSA, and it's cost-effective."

When a cancerous tumor begins to develop, the body mobilizes to produce antibodies. Huo's test detects that immune response using gold nanoparticles about 10,000 times smaller than a freckle.

When a few drops of blood serum from a finger prick are mixed with the gold nanoparticles, certain cancer biomarkers cling to the surface of the tiny particles, increasing their size and causing them to clump together.

Among researchers, gold nanoparticles are known for their extraordinary efficiency at absorbing and scattering light. Huo and her team at UCF's NanoScience Technology Center developed a technique known as nanoparticle-enabled dynamic light scattering assay (NanoDLSay) to measure the size of the particles by analyzing the light they throw off. That size reveals whether a patient has prostate cancer and how advanced it may be.

And although it uses gold, the test is cheap. A small bottle of nanoparticles suspended in water costs about $250, and contains enough for about 2,500 tests.

"What's different and unique about our technique is it's a very simple process, and the material required for the test is less than $1," Huo said. "And because it's low-cost, we're hoping most people can have this test in their doctor's office. If we can catch this cancer in its early stages, the impact is going to be big."

After lung cancer, prostate cancer is the second-leading killer cancer among men, with more than 240,000 new diagnoses and 28,000 deaths every year. The most commonly used screening tool is the PSA, but it produces so many false-positive results -- leading to painful biopsies and extreme treatments -- that one of its discoverers recently called it "hardly more effective than a coin toss."

Pilot studies found Huo's technique is significantly more exact. The test determines with 90 to 95 percent confidence that the result is not false-positive. When it comes to false-negatives, there is 50 percent confidence -- not ideal, but still significantly higher than the PSA's 20 percent -- and Huo is working to improve that number.

The results of the pilot studies were published recently in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. Huo is also scheduled to present her findings in June at the TechConnect World Innovation Summit & Expo in suburban Washington, D.C.

Huo's team is pursuing more extensive clinical validation studies with Florida Hospital and others, including the VA Medical Center Orlando. She hopes to complete major clinical trials and see the test being used by physicians in two to three years.

Huo also is researching her technique's effectiveness as a screening tool for other tumors.

"Potentially, we could have a universal screening test for cancer," she said. "Our vision is to develop an array of blood tests for early detection and diagnosis of all major cancer types, and these blood tests are all based on the same technique and same procedure."

Huo co-founded Nano Discovery Inc., a startup company headquartered in a UCF Business Incubator, to commercialize the new diagnostic test. The company manufacturers a test device specifically for medical research and diagnostic purposes.


Agelbert NOTE:      HMMMMmmmm....  GOLD for detecting PROSTATE CANCER... There's got to be a good joke in there somewhere.   

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #17 on: May 19, 2015, 12:40:55 am »
Why Can't Naked Mole Rats Get Cancer?   

According to a study done by the University of Rochester in 2013, naked mole rats do not get cancer because they have complex sugars that prevent cells from clumping and turning into cancerous tumors.

Naked mole rats were selected for the study because they live very long, about 30 years, and do not seem to get cancer. The study revealed that the reason cells do not clump in naked mole rats is due to a complex sugar called hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix, the space between cells.

The study set off discussions about the possibility of altering hyaluronan sugars in humans or using this specific gene from naked more rats in the fight against cancer.

More about naked mole rats:

•The naked mole rat is a type of rodent which lives in burrows in soil. It spends most of its life in darkness.

•Contrary to popular belief, naked mole rats are not blind and they are not exactly hairless; they have very thin hairs that help them with navigation.

•Naked mole rats have a social structure similar to some insects. There are worker and fighter naked mole rats, and a queen who is the only one who breeds.

« Last Edit: January 06, 2017, 06:44:59 pm by AGelbert »
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #18 on: November 20, 2015, 12:14:37 am »
Making an informed decision requires being informed. Are you?   

 In the United States, cancer kills six hundred thousand people each year. Like most wars, the 'war' on cancer is expensive, and profitable. In that one year, chemotherapy will generate almost $100,000,000,000 (one hundred billion) of income.

 Chemotherapy is effective against certain types of cancer (leukemia, lymphoma/Hodgkin's), which, taken together, make up a fraction of all-cancer mortality (<1%). For the major metastatic cancer killers however (breast, lung, colon, pancreatic), five-year survival rates have not changed significantly since the advent of its widespread use. Its side effects are associated with significant morbidity and even further carcinogenesis (aka more costs/profits). One might wonder what happened to the Hippocratic Oath.

 Chemotherapy costs $50,000-$70,000 or more per treatment regimen. Unlike any other prescription drug or treatment, doctors prescribing chemo make direct profit per sale.

 And despite what most oncologists have been taught, if you are taking radiation or chemo, or both, ...take your anti-oxidants also. You're more likely to get better, with fewer and less severe side effects.

Be informed.
- See more at: http://www.nextworldtv.com/videos/health-and-medical-2/chemotherapy---its-good-for-whom.html#sthash.pbaej7SW.dpuf
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #19 on: January 06, 2017, 06:43:05 pm »

Medicine That Grows On Trees  ;D

David Wolfe, a leading authority on nutrition and raw food, points out the value of a simple mushroom growing on a tree stump.

 In these mushrooms is where you will find some of the strongest medicinal compounds.

 He shows us the cloud mushroom, so common it grows in every state of the US and Canada.

 It has tremendous healing properties: immune system enhancing and anti-cancer properties, and it detoxifies the liver not only of cancer causing agents but of plastic by-products!

 If you learn to identify it, you can simply harvest this mushroom, take it home and make a healing tea.

 --Bibi Farber

 This video was produced by 21daystohealth.com

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #20 on: December 02, 2017, 04:21:38 pm »
Agelbert NOTE: Did you know that ALL cancer cells (from ALL types of cancers) have mitichondrial dysfunction? Healthy mitochondria are the ultimate cancer cell suppressors. The importance of that fact for your health goes beyond cancer prevention to metabolic disease prevention and/or therapy.

How Metabolic Therapies Prevent and Treat Chronic Diseases

December 02, 2017 • 116,071 views   

Story at-a-glance

֍ Mounting evidence shows conditions such as Alzheimer’s and cancer are metabolic diseases, which means you can prevent, treat and recover from them like other metabolic conditions, such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease

֍ A number of experts and researchers are now convinced the answer to our burgeoning cancer and Alzheimer’s epidemics is a ketogenic diet and other metabolic support, such as fasting, hyperbaric oxygen treatment and dietary supplementation

֍ During fasting or ketosis, your brain switches to using ketone bodies derived from dietary fats as its primary fuel, and ketones have potent neuroprotective effects and enhance brain function

֍ Healthy cells have the metabolic flexibility to use either glucose or ketones (obtained through your diet from carbohydrates and healthy fats respectively), whereas cancer cells cannot use ketones for fuel due to having damaged mitochondria

֍ Nutritional ketosis prevents and combats cancer by optimizing mitochondrial function, decreasing blood glucose and insulin, increasing tissue oxygenation, decreasing free radical generation, downregulating oncogenes and upregulating tumor suppressor genes

Detailed article with more video:

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #21 on: December 02, 2017, 04:48:48 pm »
The Tax Scam Passed the Senate. What Now?

December 2, 2017

Republicans have jammed the Trump Tax Scam through the Senate, by a vote of 51-49. It’s hard to imagine how this bill could be worse: not only does it give massive tax cuts to the rich and corporations, it also allows drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Reserve, exacerbates growing inequality, and adds $1 trillion to the deficit—which will force deep cuts to Medicaid, Medicare, and Social Security down the road.

The Tax Scam is not yet law. Republicans have two options for how to get the Tax Scam across the finish line, and then they have to immediately attend to funding the government. Here’s what comes next.


Since the House and Senate passed different versions of the Tax Scam, one option for Republicans is to merge them together by “going to conference.” This is where members of the House and Senate are appointed to a conference committee.  The goal is to work out the differences between the bills and put them together into one “conference report” which is then voted on by both the House and Senate.

There are a number of important differences between the two bills, first and foremost the repeal of the individual mandate that was included in the Senate version but not the House. There are also differences between the individual tax rates, the estate tax, and the alternative minimum tax.

Republicans have all publicly ;)  said they want to go to conference. Going to conference would more closely resemble “regular order” and allow for some review of what is in these bills. That extends the process of passing the Tax Scam by at least two weeks or so, because they have to appoint conferees, come up with the agreement, and then vote on it in both chambers. Given the deep unpopularity of the Tax Scam, it’s likely they’ll try to avoid conference at any cost by instead choosing Option B…


To really put the pedal to the metal on finishing the Tax Scam, Republicans can instead have the House pass the version just passed by the Senate. Even though Republicans have all said they want to go to conference, it would save them a ton of time and trouble to go this route instead. If the votes are there in the House to pass the Senate bill, they will.

Look for Speaker Ryan to quietly spend the weekend twisting arms behind the scenes. There is currently a vote scheduled on Monday, December 4 to “instruct conferees” (tell the members of the Conference Committee what to do)—but this could easily be turned into a vote on the Senate bill itself if the votes are there.


If Republicans go with Option A, it will mean the conference report on the Tax Scam takes a back seat to next week’s main event: finding a way to fund the government by the December 8 deadline. If they go with Option B, and the bill passes the House, it will mean Congress has finished its work on the Tax Scam.

Either way, our attention now needs to be on funding the government and holding Democrats to their commitment to secure inclusion of the DREAM Act in the funding bill. Democrats have promised for three months that they will use their leverage on the December spending bill to get the DREAM Act done. Now it’s time for them to deliver. Read more and find out how you can help Dreamers at www.dreamerpledge.org.


Nothing in this tax plan benefits anyone as far down the food chain as I am. I noticed that (as usual) that doctors and lawyers are explicitly denied the corporate tax loopholes, as has been the case for decades now. Bend over, citizens.

Yep.  :(

Thank you for this info. People need to know that even a professional like you with a degree in medicine is not going to benefit in comparison with the elite crooks this Tax Scam was pushed through for.

By the way, if you have the time, check out the video and the article I just posted. There is some fascinating new info on metabolic activity. For example, you and I were taught that the brain gets energy exclusively from glucose metabolism. It turns out that is not true. Ketone metabolism has been found to inhibit all sorts of deleterious activity like siezures and ischemic conditions. It's really strange because it turns out too much oxygen (study of U.S. Navy divers) caused seizures and ALSO anoxic condition ischemia and metabolic disease conditions can both be treated with ketone therapy. It's a bit involved for the average joe but you have all the years of study to understand this. It seems like a great avenue for improved health. If you find any flaws that they don't mention (e.g. ketosis downsides for our health), please fill me in.
Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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Re: Cancer
« Reply #22 on: November 13, 2018, 01:30:44 pm »
Practical Knowledge. Real Hope.
from the American Association for Cancer Research

September 25, 2018

New Tactics for Bladder Cancer

After decades without treatment advances, options for patients with bladder cancer are now more numerous. 👍

by Kendall K. Morgan

WHEN KARL PRITCHARD noticed blood in his urine one morning in February 2014, he made an appointment with his primary care d​octor. The doctor told Pritchard, who was 76 years old at the time, that if he didn’t have a bladder infection, the blood was probably a sign of cancer.

When a course of antibiotics didn’t resolve the issue, the doctor ordered a CT scan and had his office schedule an appointment with a urologist near Pritchard’s home in Edenton, North Carolina. The urologist performed a cystoscopy, threading a small tube with a light and lens through the urethra and into the bladder, which revealed a tumor. The specialist surgically removed a sample of tumor tissue that included the inner wall of the bladder and its underlying muscle. The biopsy results and CT scan indicated the cancer was boring its way into the muscle layer of the bladder wall.    


Bladder cancer survivor Karl Pritchard enrolled in a clinical trial for a PD-L1 inhibitor prior to its approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating bladder cancer. He currently has no evidence of disease. Photo by Ed Cunicelli, © 2016 Cancer Support Community

Within weeks, Pritchard had robotic surgery to remove his bladder. After pathology reports came back, he was diagnosed with stage III urothelial carcinoma. Urothelial cancer is the most common type of bladder cancer in the U.S., and the standard treatment for Pritchard’s type of cancer includes surgery and the chemotherapy drug cisplatin. However, during Pritchard’s operation, the surgeon discovered the tumor had damaged his left kidney by blocking blood flow to the ureter, a duct that transports urine from the kidney to the bladder. His right kidney was also damaged due to a complication from surgery.

The compromised kidney function made Pritchard ineligible for chemotherapy, which for decades had been the only drug option approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for invasive bladder cancer. The kidneys are essential for ridding the body of waste products, including chemotherapy drugs. While the treatment might have helped keep the cancer at bay, it would have almost certainly done further damage to the kidneys. It wasn’t worth the risk.

At the time, “the only thing I knew about cancer was how to spell it,” Pritchard says. He resolved to pore over everything he could find about bladder cancer. In an internet search, he stumbled across what sounded like a promising experimental option: immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

Immunotherapy treatments enlist the immune system in the fight against cancer. In 2011, the checkpoint inhibitor Yervoy (ipilimumab), which inhibits a protein known as CTLA-4, was approved to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. In the same year that Pritchard received his diagnosis, two immunotherapy treatments, which are part of a class of drugs known as PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors, received FDA approval for metastatic melanoma. PD-1 is found at the surface of immune cells, and PD-L1 can be found in abundance in some types of cancer. When these two proteins bind, the immune cells are unable to attack the cancer cells. By blocking either PD-1 or PD-L1 and thereby preventing the interaction between them, this class of checkpoint inhibitor releases the “brakes” on the immune system, allowing the body to go full throttle against cancer.

But these drugs were years away from approval for treating bladder cancer when Pritchard asked in May 2014, soon after his operation, whether immunotherapy might be an option for him. His surgeon responded that he should get his affairs in order. Despite the surgical removal of Pritchard’s bladder, a PET scan later showed cancer in his pelvis and lymph nodes in his abdomen, glowing “like headlights in a dark room,” Pritchard says.

Overcoming the Odds

In the U.S., about 80,000 people will receive a diagnosis of bladder cancer this year, and more than 700,000 people are now living with the disease. About 75 percent of people diagnosed with bladder cancer live at least five years after their diagnosis. That’s because most bladder cancers are caught in the early stages, when the cancer is only in the inner lining of the bladder. Once the cancer invades the surrounding deep muscle or spreads to nearby lymph nodes, the patient’s chances of survival drop precipitously. Pritchard’s inability to undergo treatment left him in an even more tenuous position.

Despite the long odds, Pritchard wasn’t ready to give up. He asked his oncologist the same question he had asked the surgeon: What about immunotherapy? As luck would have it, his oncologist’s office was affiliated with another office based in Norfolk, Virginia, that was recruiting patients for a clinical trial to analyze a checkpoint inhibitor called Tecentriq (atezolizumab) for advanced bladder cancer. Pritchard visited the Norfolk office and had a sample of his previously frozen bladder tissue sent off for analysis for the study. Because his tumor expressed high levels of PD-L1 and he was not a candidate for chemotherapy, he was eligible to enroll in the trial.

He received his first infusion of Tecentriq in February 2015, joining the study along with 118 other patients with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer for whom chemotherapy wasn’t an option. He began receiving infusions of the drug every three weeks at the Norfolk clinic, 70 miles from his home. Scans, taken every other month, first showed the tumors shrinking dramatically and then indicated no evidence of cancer.

Pritchard was fortunate. The study results from the trial arm he participated in showed that just about 20 percent of patients with otherwise untreatable bladder tumors responded to the immunotherapy treatment. About 25 percent of patients whose tumors had high levels of PD-L1 expression responded. In May 2016, the FDA approved Tecentriq to treat advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma that hasn't responded to platinum-based chemotherapy, making it the first PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor approved to treat the disease. In April 2017, the FDA extended the drug’s approval as a first-line treatment for people with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma who aren’t eligible for treatment with cisplatin.

The FDA has now approved four additional checkpoint inhibitors for bladder cancer: Bavencio (avelumab), Imfinzi (durvalumab), Keytruda (pembrolizumab) and Opdivo (nivolumab). Surgery and chemotherapy are still considered the standard of care for bladder cancer. However, patients on chemotherapy whose cancer progresses or who, like Pritchard, are unable to receive chemotherapy for other reasons now have viable treatment alternatives. ​​

Detecting Bladder Cancer

Researchers explore using urine tests to monitor patients for signs of recurrence.

​Research on the Rise

The number of clinical trials in bladder cancer has grown since the time of Pritchard’s diagnosis in 2014. For example, a recent search using ClinicalTrials.gov, an online repository of research trials, shows more than 260 studies are enrolling patients with bladder cancer.

Researchers are exploring the use of combinations of immunotherapies or immunotherapy plus chemotherapy. For instance, a team led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City recently reported the results of a phase II clinical trial showing that metastatic bladder cancer patients, especially those whose tumors carry DNA repair defects, may benefit from receiving the chemotherapy drugs gemcitabine and cisplatin together with Yervoy. A phase II tr​ial set to begin in September 2018 is analyzing this chemotherapy combination plus Opdivo in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

There is also interest in combining existing checkpoint inhibitors with IDO inhibitors, which target other proteins shown to help cancer escape the immune system. (Of note, however, a phase III clinical trial testing​ this combination approach in melanoma recently ended in failure.) In March 2018, the FDA granted breakthrough therapy designation to a drug called enfortumab vedotin, which means the agency is expediting its development and review, for use in patients with locally advanced or metastatic bladder cancer who have previously received checkpoint inhibitors. The treatment, while not an immunotherapy, targets a protein called nectin-4 that’s highly expressed in most metastatic bladder cancers. One study found that about 50 percent of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma responded to the treatment.

Researchers are also looking into combining chemotherapy with drugs targeting a blood vessel growth factor called VEGF. In addition, a phase II​​ clinical​ trial recently showed that about 40 percent of patients whose metastatic urothelial cancers carry mutations in the FGFR3 gene respond to treatment with an oral drug called erdafitinib, which also received the FDA’s breakthrough therapy designation for metastatic bladder cancer in March 2018. The drug targets all FGFR proteins, including the mutated FGFR3 found in as much as 20 percent of metastatic bladder cancers. Researchers are also exploring whether epigenetic drugs, some of which can chemically alter the surface of DNA to influence gene expression, might reinvigorate a response to immunotherapy after it stops working.

“As a urologist who has been involved in clinical trial research for the last 20 years, it’s been very rewarding to see in the last two to three years, and certainly now, a renewed awakening in the bladder cancer clinical trials landscape,” says Neal Shore, a urologic oncologist and director of the Carolina Urologic Research Center in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. “For almost three decades, we didn’t have a lot to be excited about, and now we have a lot of really interesting clinical trials with different molecules targeting different molecular pathways.”

Matching Treatments to Patients

With all the emerging choices, researchers also are focusing on finding biomarkers to couple the most promising treatment option with a patient’s unique tumor genetics. With a better understanding of how specific markers make the cancer behave, “you could not only detect the cancer, but pinpoint how to treat it,” says David McConkey, a research scientist and director of the Johns Hopkins Greenberg Bladder Cancer Institute in Baltimore. “My vision is that some patients will be assigned pre-surgical chemotherapy and some pre-surgical immunotherapy—maybe some will be assigned to receive both at same time,” McConkey says.

The Cancer Genome Atlas, a comprehensive project by the National Cancer Institute to categorize the DNA changes in various cancer types, recently analyzed tissue samples of more than 400 muscle-invasive bladder tumors, McConkey notes. This research has uncovered 58 significantly mutated genes and five distinct molecular subtypes of bladder cancer, which could aid in pairing treatments with the genetics of a patient’s tumor. But there’s more work to be done.

“In the future, we’re going to have to learn about the biology of a tumor and make decisions based on that biology, and everybody will be different,” says Matthew Milowsky, a urologic oncologist at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Milowsky is leading a study sponsored by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network that provides free genomic testing to patients with metastatic bladder cancer to help identify the most promising clinical trials and to develop a tissue repository for future research.

In many cases, this kind of molecular characterization is already guiding treatment choices for patients with bladder cancer, but it’s not being used everywhere, Milowsky cautions. An important question will be “how do we translate such efforts” to reach more people, the majority of whom receive care in community health care settings.

Fortunately, Pritchard asked about immunotherapy and found a path to a clinical trial that would ultimately extend his life. He still goes in for regular blood draws and infusions of Tecentriq every three weeks as part of the ongoing clinical trial. There is no evidence of cancer in his body, but he continues to search the web daily to learn about new treatments. And even though Pritchard is unable to lift more than 25 pounds because of his surgery and he tires easily—a common side effect of immunotherapy treatment—he says his quality of life is “still very good.”​

For others who find themselves in a similar position, he has some advice: “Doctors see so many patients each day and can’t remember all the details. As a patient, you need to speak up for yourself.” Ask questions, he says, and, if you aren’t satisfied with the response, keep asking until you are. ​

Hope deferred maketh the heart sick: but when the desire cometh, it is a tree of life. Pr. 13:12


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